Research and Conference Publications

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This collection contains journal articles and other research publications such as book chapters, conference papers, and posters authored by NT Health staff and provides an overview of the interests, research activities and projects undertaken by NT Health staff. Most journal articles are published in subscription-based or open access publications, so this collection contains mainly citations and links to full text content on external sites, but where permitted, the PDF file has been made available.

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 2009
  • Publication
    Global gene expression profile of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and its underlying biological disease mechanisms.
    (2024)
    Farah, Camile S
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    Shearston, Kate
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    Turner, Emma C
    ;
    Vacher, Michael
    ;
    Fox, Simon A
    BACKGROUND: Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is a rare and enigmatic oral potentially malignant disorder which almost invariably results in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aims of this project were to use transcriptome profiling to characterise PVL gene expression patterns for biomarker identification and gain insight into the molecular aetiopathogenesis of PVL. METHODS: Forty-three oral cavity mucosal biopsies from 32 patients with oral lesions clinically compatible with either PVL or non-PVL conventional oral leukoplakia (OLK) underwent transcriptome profiling by RNA sequencing. Data was analysed by hierarchical clustering, differential gene expression, functional enrichment and network analysis, sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis sPLS-DA, and immune cell phenotypic estimation. RESULTS: We found 464 genes significantly differentially expressed at least 2-fold between PVL and non-PVL OLK (193 up and 271 down). HOX genes, including HOXA1 and HOXB7, keratin-associated proteins (KRTAPs) and olfactory receptor G proteins (OR) were significantly upregulated in PVL. Other upregulated genes in PVL included FOS, WNT16 and IFNA1. Pathway analysis showed that there was a significant downregulation of connective tissue signalling in PVL. Classifying multivariate models based upon 22 genes discriminated PVL from non-PVL OLK. Bioinformatic profiling showed that immune cell profiles in PVL and OLK were similar except that fibroblast markers were reduced in PVL. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that PVL and conventional OLK are molecularly distinct with upregulation of many cancer-associated genes. They provide insight into the pathogenesis of PVL and show that biomarker based molecular diagnostics is feasible to discriminate and inform diagnosis and management.
  • Publication
    Antibiotics to eradicate Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngeal carriage in asymptomatic children and adults: A systematic review.
    (2024-02-14) ;
    Phuong, LK
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    Grobler, A
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    Tong, SYC
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    Freeth, P
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    Pelenda, A
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    Gibney, KB
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    Steer, AC
    Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) is a Gram-positive bacteria which causes a spectrum of diseases ranging from asymptomatic infection to life-threatening sepsis. Studies report up to 2000 times greater risk of invasive S. pyogenes disease in close contacts of index cases within 30-days of symptom onset. Despite this, there is variability in the management of asymptomatic carriage of S. pyogenes and those at risk of secondary cases of invasive S. pyogenes infection. OBJECTIVE: Our systematic review assessed the efficacy of different antibiotic regimens used for eradication of S. pyogenes from the pharynx in asymptomatic individuals. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, EMBASE (1974-), OVID Medline (1948-) and the Cochrane CENTRAL registry. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with asymptomatic participants with >50% with pharyngeal cultures positive with S. pyogenes at baseline. Only studies with microbiological methods including culture (+/- polymerase chain reaction, PCR) were included. We included studies published in English. Each included study was assessed by two independent reviewers for data extraction and risk of bias. RESULTS: Of 1166 unique records identified, three RCTs were included in the review. Two of the three included RCTs found oral clindamycin for 10-days was the most efficacious regimen, compared to intramuscular benzathine penicillin G followed by 4 days of oral rifampicin, or monotherapy using benzathine penicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin or erythromycin. Two RCTs were assessed as being at high risk of bias, with the third study demonstrating low/some risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Current available evidence for the optimal antibiotic in eradicating pharyngeal S. pyogenes carriage is limited. Future RCTs should include penicillin, first-generation cephalosporins, rifampicin, macrolides (such as azithromycin) and clindamycin.
  • Publication
    Targeting Molecular Measurable Residual Disease and Low-Blast Relapse in AML With Venetoclax and Low-Dose Cytarabine: A Prospective Phase II Study (VALDAC).
    (2024)
    Tiong, Ing Soo
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    Hiwase, Devendra K
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    Abro, Emad
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    Bajel, Ashish
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    Palfreyman, Emma
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    Beligaswatte, Ashanka
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    Reynolds, John
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    Anstee, Natasha
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    Nguyen, Tamia
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    Loo, Sun
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    Chua, Chong Chyn
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    Ashby, Michael
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    Wiltshire, Kaitlyn M
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    Fleming, Shaun
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    Fong, Chun Y
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    Teh, Tse-Chieh
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    Blombery, Piers
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    Dillon, Richard
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    Ivey, Adam
    ;
    Wei, Andrew H
    PURPOSE: A prospective phase II study examined the safety and efficacy of venetoclax combined with low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) in AML at first measurable residual disease (MRD) or oligoblastic relapse. METHODS: Patients with either MRD (≥1 log(10) rise) or oligoblastic relapse (blasts 5%-15%) received venetoclax 600 mg once daily D1-28 plus LDAC once daily D1-10 in 28-day cycles. The primary objective was MRD response in the MRD relapse cohort or complete remission (CR/CRh/CRi) in the oligoblastic relapse cohort. RESULTS: Forty-eight adults with either MRD (n = 26) or oligoblastic (n = 22) relapse were enrolled. Median age was 67 years (range, 18-80) and 94% had received previous intensive chemotherapy. Patients received a median of four cycles of therapy; 17% completed ≥12 cycles. Patients with oligoblastic relapse had more grade ≥3 anemia (32% v 4%; P = .02) and infections (36% v 8%; P = .03), whereas grade 4 neutropenia (32 v 23%) or thrombocytopenia (27 v 15%) were comparable with the MRD relapse cohort. Markers of molecular MRD relapse included mutant NPM1 (77%), CBFB::MYH11 (4%), RUNX1::RUNX1T1 (4%), or KMT2A::MLLT3 (4%). Three patients with a log(10) rise in IDH1/2 (12%) were included. By cycle 2 in the MRD relapse cohort, a log(10) reduction in MRD was observed in 69%; 46% achieved MRD negative remission. In the oligoblastic relapse cohort, 73% achieved CR/CRh/CRi. Overall, 21 (44%) underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation. Median overall survival (OS) was not reached in either cohort. Estimated 2-year OS rate was 67% (95% CI, 50 to 89) in the MRD and 53% (95% CI, 34 to 84) in the oligoblastic relapse cohorts. CONCLUSION: For AML in first remission and either MRD or oligoblastic relapse, venetoclax plus LDAC is well tolerated and highly effective.
  • Publication
    Testing the intrinsic mechanisms driving the dynamics of Ross River Virus across Australia.
    (2024-02-15)
    Koolhof IS
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    Beeton N
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    Bettiol S
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    Charleston M
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    Firestone SM
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    Gibney K
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    Neville P
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    Jardine A
    ;
    ; ;
    Warchot A
    ;
    ;
    Onn M
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    Rowe S
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    Franklin L
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    Fricker S
    ;
    Williams C
    ;
    Carver S
    The mechanisms driving dynamics of many epidemiologically important mosquito-borne pathogens are complex, involving combinations of vector and host factors (e.g., species composition and life-history traits), and factors associated with transmission and reporting. Understanding which intrinsic mechanisms contribute most to observed disease dynamics is important, yet often poorly understood. Ross River virus (RRV) is Australia's most important mosquito-borne disease, with variable transmission dynamics across geographic regions. We used deterministic ordinary differential equation models to test mechanisms driving RRV dynamics across major epidemic centers in Brisbane, Darwin, Mandurah, Mildura, Gippsland, Renmark, Murray Bridge, and Coorong. We considered models with up to two vector species (Aedes vigilax, Culex annulirostris, Aedes camptorhynchus, Culex globocoxitus), two reservoir hosts (macropods, possums), seasonal transmission effects, and transmission parameters. We fit models against long-term RRV surveillance data (1991-2017) and used Akaike Information Criterion to select important mechanisms. The combination of two vector species, two reservoir hosts, and seasonal transmission effects explained RRV dynamics best across sites. Estimated vector-human transmission rate (average β = 8.04x10-4per vector per day) was similar despite different dynamics. Models estimate 43% underreporting of RRV infections. Findings enhance understanding of RRV transmission mechanisms, provide disease parameter estimates which can be used to guide future research into public health improvements and offer a basis to evaluate mitigation practices.
  • Publication
    Appraisal of Australian and New Zealand paediatric sepsis guidelines.
    (2024)
    Sasse R
    ;
    Borland ML
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    George S
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    Jani S
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    Tan E
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    Neutze J
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    Phillips N
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    Kochar A
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    Craig S
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    ;
    Rao A
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    Dalziel SR
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    Williams A
    ;
    Babl FE
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    Went G
    ;
    Long E
    OBJECTIVE: Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are an important tool for the management of children with sepsis. The quality, consistency and concordance of Australian and New Zealand (ANZ) childhood sepsis CPGs with the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Healthcare (ACSQHC) sepsis clinical care standards and international sepsis guidelines is unclear. METHODS: We accessed childhood sepsis CPGs for all ANZ states and territories through Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative members. The guidelines were assessed for quality using the AGREE-II instrument. Consistency between CPG treatment recommendations was assessed, as was concordance with the ACSQHC sepsis clinical care standards and international sepsis guidelines. RESULTS: Overall, eight CPGs were identified and assessed. CPGs used a narrative and pathway format, with those using both having the highest quality overall. CPG quality was highest for description of scope and clarity of presentation, and lowest for editorial independence. Consistency between guidelines for initial treatment recommendations was poor, with substantial variation in the choice and urgency of empiric antimicrobial administration; the choice, volume and urgency of fluid resuscitation; and the choice of first-line vasoactive agent. Most CPGs were concordant with time-critical components of the ACSQHC sepsis clinical care standard, although few addressed post-acute care. Concordance with international sepsis guidelines was poor. CONCLUSION: Childhood sepsis CPGs in current use in ANZ are of variable quality and lack consistency with key treatment recommendations. CPGs are concordant with the ACSQHC care standard, but not with international sepsis guidelines. A bi-national sepsis CPG may reduce unnecessary variation in care.