Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/10137/5741
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dc.contributor.authorNickson, Christopher Pen
dc.contributor.authorWaugh, Edith Ben
dc.contributor.authorJacups, Susan Pen
dc.contributor.authorCurrie BJen
dc.date2009en
dc.date.accessioned2018-05-15T23:01:43Zen
dc.date.available2018-05-15T23:01:43Zen
dc.date.issued2009-09en
dc.identifier.citationAnnals of emergency medicine 2009-09; 54(3): 395-403en
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10137/5741en
dc.description.abstractWe describe Irukandji syndrome (a painful hypercatecholaminergic condition caused by jellyfish envenoming) in Australia's Northern Territory. We collected prospectively a standardized data set on patients presenting to health facilities in the Northern Territory. Additional cases were identified retrospectively. Data collected included demographic, geographic, seasonal, and environmental features, as well as sting details, clinical manifestations, investigations, management, and outcomes. From 1990 to 2007, Irukandji syndrome affected 87 people. Age ranged from 1 to 51 years (64% male victims; 41% children [63% indigenous]). Activities associated with stings included snorkeling or scuba diving (35%) and swimming (29%). Stings commonly occurred in water greater than 2 m deep (63%), with fine weather (73%) and still or light breeze (70%). Seasonal variation was bimodal; peaks in May and October corresponded to prevailing offshore winds in the Darwin and Gove areas, respectively. Pain was severe (65%), with rapid onset (<30 minutes in 79%). Sting lesions (visible in 63%) were mild, and nematocysts (detected in 7 cases) had variable morphology. Systemic features were common, including hypertension and ECG abnormalities. Severe complications included troponin-level increases (2 cases) and cardiomyopathy with ventricular tachycardia (1 case), but no fatalities. Management included vinegar as first aid (66%), parenteral opioids (70%) (range 2 to 82.5 mg morphine equivalents in adults), and magnesium sulfate (3 cases). Hospital admission (49%) and aeromedical retrieval (16%) were commonplace. Irukandji syndrome in the Northern Territory was clinically consistent with previous studies but had distinct seasonal, geographic, and environmental features. Indigenous children in remote coastal communities are at risk, and there is room for improvement in prevention and management.en
dc.language.isoengen
dc.titleIrukandji syndrome case series from Australia's Tropical Northern Territory.en
dc.typeCase Reportsen
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.identifier.journaltitleAnnals of emergency medicineen
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.annemergmed.2009.03.022en
dc.identifier.pubmedidhttps://www.ezpdhcs.nt.gov.au/login?url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed//19409658en
dc.subject.meshAcetic Aciden
dc.subject.meshAdolescenten
dc.subject.meshAdulten
dc.subject.meshAnalgesics, Opioiden
dc.subject.meshAnestheticsen
dc.subject.meshAnimalsen
dc.subject.meshAntiveninsen
dc.subject.meshBites and Stingsen
dc.subject.meshCardiomyopathiesen
dc.subject.meshChilden
dc.subject.meshChild, Preschoolen
dc.subject.meshCnidarian Venomsen
dc.subject.meshFemaleen
dc.subject.meshFirst Aiden
dc.subject.meshHospitalizationen
dc.subject.meshHumansen
dc.subject.meshHypertensionen
dc.subject.meshIndicators and Reagentsen
dc.subject.meshInfanten
dc.subject.meshMagnesium Sulfateen
dc.subject.meshMaleen
dc.subject.meshMiddle Ageden
dc.subject.meshNorthern Territoryen
dc.subject.meshPainen
dc.subject.meshPain Managementen
dc.subject.meshPain Measurementen
dc.subject.meshPoisonsen
dc.subject.meshProspective Studiesen
dc.subject.meshRetrospective Studiesen
dc.subject.meshSeasonsen
dc.subject.meshSwimmingen
dc.subject.meshSyndromeen
dc.subject.meshTreatment Outcomeen
dc.subject.meshYoung Adulten
dc.subject.meshScyphozoaen
dc.identifier.affiliationRoyal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia..en
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