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Title: High human T cell leukaemia virus type 1c proviral loads are associated with diabetes and chronic kidney disease: results of a cross-sectional community survey in central Australia.
Authors: Talukder MR
Woodman R
Pham H
Wilson K
Gessain A
Kaldor J
Einsiedel LJ
Citation: © The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
Clin Infect Dis. 2022 Jul 29:ciac614. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciac614.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A link between chronic inflammation and several non-communicable diseases (NCD) has been established. Although chronic infection with the human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the recognised cause of several inflammatory diseases and these are associated with a high number of HTLV-1 infected cells in peripheral blood (proviral load, PVL), possible interactions between PVL and NCDs have not been studied at a community level. METHODS: Adult Aboriginal residents of seven remote communities were invited to do a health survey between 25 August 2014 and 30 June 2018. Blood was drawn for HTLV-1 serology and PVL and relevant medical conditions were obtained from health records. Associations between HTLV-1 PVL and diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and coronary artery disease (CAD) were determined using logistic regression, adjusting for available confounders. RESULTS: Among 510 participants (56% of the estimated adult resident population, 922), 197 (38.6%) were HTLV-1 infected. A high HTLV-1 PVL was associated with a two-fold increase in the odds of diabetes and CKD (diabetes, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.95 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06, 3.61, p = 0.033; CKD, aOR 2.00, 95% CI, 1.03, 3.8, p = 0.041). A non-significant association between high PVL and CAD (aOR, 7.08; 95% CI 1.00, 50.18; p = 0.05) was found for participants younger than 50 years at the time of angiography. CONCLUSION: In a community-based study in central Australia people living with HTLV-1 who had high HTLV-1 PVL were more likely to have diabetes and CKD. These findings have potential clinical implications.
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Journal title: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Publication Date: 2022-07-29
Type: Journal Article
DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciac614
Orcid: 0000-0002-2517-6083
Appears in Collections:(a) NT Health Research Collection

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