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Title: Pediatric Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: clinical spectrum and predictors of poor outcome.
Authors: Campbell, Anita J
Al Yazidi, Laila S
Phuong, Linny K
Leung, Clare
Best, Emma J
Webb, Rachel H
Voss, Lesley
Athan, Eugene
Britton, Philip N
Bryant, Penelope A
Butters, Coen T
Carapetis, Jonathan R
Ching, Natasha S
Coombs, Geoffrey W
Daley, Denise
Francis, Joshua
Hung, Te-Yu
Mowlaboccus, Shakeel
Nourse, Clare
Ojaimi, Samar
Tai, Alex
Vasilunas, Nan
McMullan, Brendan
Blyth, Christopher C
Bowen, Asha C
Citation: © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail:
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 5:ciab510. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab510.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of bacteremia, yet the epidemiology, and predictors of poor outcome remain inadequately defined in childhood. METHODS: ISAIAH is a prospective, cross-sectional study of S. aureus bacteremia (SAB), in children hospitalized in Australia and New Zealand, over 24-months (2017-2018). RESULTS: Overall, 552 SABs were identified, (incidence 4.4/100,000/yr [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-8.8]), with methicillin-susceptible (84%), community onset (78%) infection predominating. Indigenous children (8.1/100,000/yr [CI 4.8-14.4]), those from lower-socioeconomic areas (5.5/100,000/yr [CI 2.8-10.2]) and neonates (6.6/100,000/yr (CI 3.4-11.7) were over-represented. Although 90-day mortality was infrequent, one-third experienced the composite of: length of stay >30 days (26%), ICU admission (20%), relapse (4%), or death (3%).Predictors of mortality included prematurity (aOR 16.8 [CI 1.6-296.9]), multifocal infection (aOR 22.6 [CI 1.4-498.5]), necrotizing pneumonia (aOR 38.9 [CI 1.7 - 1754.6]), multiorgan dysfunction (aOR 26.5 [CI 4.1-268.8]) and empiric-vancomycin (aOR 15.7 [CI 1.6-434.4]); whilst Infectious Diseases (ID) consultation (aOR 0.07 [CI 0.004-0.9]) was protective. Neither MRSA nor vancomycin trough-targets impacted survival; however, empiric-vancomycin was associated with significant nephrotoxicity (OR 3.1 [CI 1.3-8.1]). CONCLUSIONS: High SAB incidence was demonstrated, with at-risk populations identified for future prioritized care. For the first time in a pediatric setting, necrotizing pneumonia and multifocal infection were predictors of mortality, whilst ID consultation was protective. The need to re-evaluate pediatric vancomycin trough-targets and limit unnecessary empiric-vancomycin exposure, to reduce poor outcomes and nephrotoxicity is highlighted. One in three children experienced considerable SAB morbidity, therefore pediatric inclusion in future SAB comparator trials is paramount to improve outcomes.
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Journal title: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Publication Date: 2021-06-05
Type: Journal Article
DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciab510
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