Now showing 1 - 10 of 11
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Spectrum of human Pasteurella species infections in tropical Australia.
    (2023-01-31)
    Mahony M
    ;
    Menouhos D
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    ;
    BACKGROUND: Acquired zoonotic infections with Pasteurella bacterial species have a wide clinical spectrum of disease from invasive infections to localised bite-wound infections. METHODS: This study reviewed the spectrum of the demographic, clinical, temporal, and microbiological trends of laboratory confirmed Pasteurella species infections presenting to a single-centre tropical tertiary hospital over a twenty-year period. RESULTS: 195 episodes from 190 patients were included. 51.3% patients were female, and 20.5% Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander peoples. Crude incidence of Pasteurella spp. infections increased from 1.5 per 100,000 population in 2000, to 11.4 per 100,000 population in 2021. There were 22 (11.3%) bloodstream infections, 22 (11.3%) invasive, 34 (17.4%) deep local, 98 (50.2%) superficial infections, and 19 (9.7%) other or unknown. Adults over 65 years of age accounted for the majority of bacteraemias (63.7%). More severe infections, including bacteraemia, invasive and deep local infections, were more common in lower limb infections and in those with underlying comorbidities. Animal contact with cats was more common in bloodstream infections (36.4%), but dog bites more common in invasive, deep local and superficial infections. 30-day all-cause mortality was low at 1.0%. Pasteurella multocida was most commonly identified (61.1%), but P. canis, P. dagmatis, and other Pasteurella infections were also noted. 67.7% of specimens were polymicrobial, with other significant organisms being Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Group G Streptococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. CONCLUSION: Pasteurella species remain clinically important pathogens, with the ability to cause severe and invasive infections with associated morbidity. Presentations to hospital are becoming more common, and the polymicrobial nature of bites wounds has implications for empiric antibiotic guidelines.
      4100
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Relative frequency, characteristics, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., Chromobacterium violaceum, and Shewanella spp. in the northern territory of Australia, 2000-2013.
    (2015-03)
    McAuliffe GN
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    ;
    Vibrio, Aeromonas, Chromobacterium violaceum, and Shewanella (VACS) are water-associated Gram-negative organisms that can cause a variety of infections. The frequency, patient characteristics, and antimicrobial susceptibilities for 468 isolates from 442 patients from the Northern Territory were reviewed. Aeromonas spp. (312 of 468; 67%) were most commonly isolated followed by Vibrio spp. (71 of 468; 15%), Shewanella spp. (61 of 468; 13%), and C. violaceum (24 of 468; 5%). A strong male predominance was found (male to female ratio of 2.3:1). Skin and soft tissue isolations (373 of 468; 80%) from lower limb infections (222 of 371; 60%) were the most common clinical manifestation. The episodes were usually polymicrobial (281 of 468; 60%). Coisolates included Staphylococcus aureus (137 of 468; 29%), β-hemolytic streptococci (74 of 468; 16%), enterobacteriaceae (111 of 468; 24%), non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli (35 of 468; 7%), and other VACS organisms (37 of 468; 8%). Antimicrobial resistance of VACS organisms to ciprofloxacin (0-4%), cefepime (0-3%), and gentamicin (0-0.8%) and Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Shewanella to cotrimoxazole (0-3%) was rarely shown. For water-associated lower limb skin and soft tissue infections in the tropics, clinicians should consider empirical antimicrobial therapy with agents active against S. aureus and VACS organisms.
      1228
  • Publication
    Journal Article
      574
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates from infected skin lesions in the Northern Territory of Australia.
    (2011-11)
    Gordon CL
    ;
    Fagan P
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    ;
    Corynebacterium diphtheriae is commonly isolated from cutaneous skin lesions in the Northern Territory of Australia. We prospectively assessed 32 recent isolates from infected skin lesions, in addition to reviewing 192 isolates collected over 5 years for toxin status. No isolates carried the toxin gene. Toxigenic C. diphtheriae is now a rare occurrence in the Northern Territory.
      1194
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Characterisation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates in the Northern Territory of Australia.
    (2023-06)
    Howes, M
    ;
    Menouhos, D
    ;
    Christofis, S
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    ;
    This article summarises our review of 41 Corynebacterium diphtheriae wound swab isolates from the tropical Northern Territory of Australia. On polymerase chain reaction and whole genome sequencing, no isolates were toxigenic strains.
      7318
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    The Spectrum of Chromobacterium violaceum Infections from a Single Geographic Location.
    (2016-04)
    Lin Y
    ;
    Majumdar SS
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    ;
    Chromobacterium violaceum is a bacterium associated with soil and water exposure in tropical regions and causes rare and serious clinical infections that are often fatal. We reviewed the demographic and clinical details of 28 patients with C. violaceum detected over 15 years from 2000 to 2015, from the Top End of the Northern Territory. Of these patients, 18 had infections attributable toC. violaceum Patients with infections were more commonly male (55.6%), and in the 16- to 60-year (61.1%) age group. Skin and soft tissue infections (50%), predominantly involving the limbs, were the major clinical manifestation. Water, mud exposure, and trauma were all noted as precipitating circumstances and comorbidities were present in 61.1% of the patients with infections. Of the 28 patients, 10 (35.8%) had C. violaceum isolated as an incidental finding or as asymptomatic colonization; these 10 patients did not require or receive therapy for C. violaceum bacterial infections. There were no relapsing infections in this group.Chromobacterium violaceum remains a serious infection, with seven patients (25%) in our series requiring intensive care management. However, the mortality rate (7.1%) in our series was far lower than previously described. This case series of C. violaceum infections from a single geographic area provides additional information of the characteristics of infection with this pathogen.
      1253
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Burkholderia pseudomallei multi-centre study to establish EUCAST MIC and zone diameter distributions and epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) values.
    (2020-07-09)
    Karatuna O
    ;
    Dance DAB
    ;
    Matuschek E
    ;
    Åhman J
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    Turner P
    ;
    Hopkins J
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    Amornchai P
    ;
    Wuthiekanun V
    ;
    Cusack T-P
    ;
    ; ;
    Norton R
    ;
    Armstrong M
    ;
    Zange S
    ;
    Zoeller L
    ;
    Wahab T
    ;
    Jacob D
    ;
    Grunow Ro
    ;
    Kahlmeter G
    OBJECTIVES: Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, requires intensive antimicrobial treatment. However, standardised antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) methodology based on modern principles for determining breakpoints and ascertaining performance of methods are lacking for B. pseudomallei. This study aimed to establish MIC and zone diameter distributions on which to set epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) values for B. pseudomallei using standard EUCAST methodology for non-fastidious organisms. METHODS: Non-consecutive, non-duplicate clinical B. pseudomallei isolates (9-70 per centre) were tested at eight study centres against eight antimicrobials by broth microdilution (BMD) and the EUCAST disc diffusion method. Isolates without and with suspected resistance mechanisms were deliberately selected. The EUCAST Development Laboratory ensured the quality of study materials, provided guidance on performance of the tests and interpretation of results. Aggregated results were analysed according to EUCAST recommendations to determine ECOFFs. RESULTS: MIC and zone diameter distributions were generated using BMD and disc diffusion results obtained for 361 B. pseudomallei isolates. MIC and zone diameter ECOFFs (mg/L-mm) were determined for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (8-22), ceftazidime (8-22), imipenem (2-29), meropenem (2-26), doxycycline (2-none), tetracycline (8-23), chloramphenicol (8-22) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (4-28). CONCLUSIONS: We have validated the use of standard BMD and disc diffusion methodology for AST of B. pseudomallei. The MIC and zone diameter distributions generated in this study allowed us to establish MIC and zone diameter ECOFFs, respectively, for the antimicrobials studied. These ECOFFs served as background data for EUCAST to set clinical MIC and zone diameter breakpoints for B. pseudomallei.
      1382
  • Publication
    Evaluation Study
    Reliability of automated biochemical identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei is regionally dependent.
    (2013-09)
    Podin Y
    ;
    Kaestli M
    ;
    McMahon N
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    ;
    Ngian HU
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    Wong JS
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    Mohana A
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    Wong SC
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    William T
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    Mayo MJ
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    ;
    Misidentifications of Burkholderia pseudomallei as Burkholderia cepacia by Vitek 2 have occurred. Multidimensional scaling ordination of biochemical profiles of 217 Malaysian and Australian B. pseudomallei isolates found clustering of misidentified B. pseudomallei isolates from Malaysian Borneo. Specificity of B. pseudomallei identification in Vitek 2 and potentially other automated identification systems is regionally dependent.
      763
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Serotype distribution of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from hospitalized patients with diarrhea in central Australia.
    (1992-01)
    Albert, M J
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    Leach, A
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    Asche, V
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    ;
    Penner, J L
    Campylobacter jejuni and/or Campylobacter coli was cultured from 218 of 1,078 patients of all age groups admitted to Alice Springs Hospital, Alice Springs, central Australia, between July 1988 and June 1989 for treatment of diarrhea. One hundred sixty-six Campylobacter colonies from 127 patients were subjected to O serotyping by using the Penner typing scheme. All except 29 colonies could be serotyped. A total of 46 serotypes were identified, and the predominant serotypes were O:8, 17, O:22, O:1,44, and O:19. A large proportion of colonies reacted with more than one antiserum, and nine serotypes had antigenic compositions not observed previously. Several patients had multiple infections with more than one serotype, and some patients were shown for the first time to be infected with up to three different serotypes. Repeated reinfections with different serotypes were seen in some patients. In some patients, provided it was not due to reinfection with the same serotype, long-term excretion of the same serotype was seen, and for the first time, one patient showed evidence of excretion of the same serotype for up to 73 days.
      1304