Now showing 1 - 10 of 19
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Developing an integrated clinical decision support system for the early identification and management of kidney disease-building cross-sectoral partnerships.
    (2024-03-07)
    Gorham, Gillian
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    Heard, Sam
    ;
    Moore, Liz
    ;
    ; ;
    Majoni, Sandawana William
    ;
    Chen, Winnie
    ;
    Balasubramanya, Bhavya
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    Talukder, Mohammad Radwanur
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    Pascoe, Sophie
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    Whitehead, Adam
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    ; ; ;
    Cass, Alan
    The burden of chronic conditions is growing in Australia with people in remote areas experiencing high rates of disease, especially kidney disease. Health care in remote areas of the Northern Territory (NT) is complicated by a mobile population, high staff turnover, poor communication between health services and complex comorbid health conditions requiring multidisciplinary care.This paper aims to describe the collaborative process between research, government and non-government health services to develop an integrated clinical decision support system to improve patient care.Building on established partnerships in the government and Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Service (ACCHS) sectors, we developed a novel digital clinical decision support system for people at risk of developing kidney disease (due to hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease) or with kidney disease. A cross-organisational and multidisciplinary Steering Committee has overseen the design, development and implementation stages. Further, the system's design and functionality were strongly informed by experts (Clinical Reference Group and Technical Working Group), health service providers, and end-user feedback through a formative evaluation.We established data sharing agreements with 11 ACCHS to link patient level data with 56 government primary health services and six hospitals. Electronic Health Record (EHR) data, based on agreed criteria, is automatically and securely transferred from 15 existing EHR platforms. Through clinician-determined algorithms, the system assists clinicians to diagnose, monitor and provide guideline-based care for individuals, as well as service-level risk stratification and alerts for clinically significant events.Disconnected health services and separate EHRs result in information gaps and a health and safety risk, particularly for patients who access multiple health services. However, barriers to clinical data sharing between health services still exist. In this first phase, we report how robust partnerships and effective governance processes can overcome these barriers to support clinical decision making and contribute to holistic care.
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Practice of dialysis access interventional nephrology procedures in the Asia-Pacific region: Getting lay of the land.
    (2023-09-11)
    Jasuja S
    ;
    Gallieni M
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    Jha V
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    Vachharajani T
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    Bhalla A K
    ;
    Tan J
    ;
    Tan C S
    ;
    Basnet N B
    ;
    Herath N
    ;
    Hai An H P
    ;
    Kim Y S
    ;
    Kim Y
    ;
    SampathKumar K
    ;
    Sahay M
    ;
    Ramachandran R
    ;
    Alexander S
    ;
    Bhargava V
    ;
    Balasubramaniam J
    ;
    Voss D
    ;
    Ogbac F E
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    Gunawan A
    ;
    Goh B L
    ;
    Lin C-C
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    Khan J
    ;
    Shiham I
    ;
    Ayub H
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    Hein M A
    ;
    Iqbal S
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    Srisawat N
    ;
    Gao B
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    ;
    Wilkinson C
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    Pichthida T
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    Rana D S
    ;
    Sagar G
    ;
    Bahl A
    ;
    Tawakley S
    ;
    Gaur M
    AIM: This cross-sectional survey aimed to determine the prevalence of Interventional Nephrology (IN) practice amongst nephrologists in the Asia-Pacific Region (APR), specifically related to dialysis access (DA). METHODS: The Association of VA and intervenTionAl Renal physicians (AVATAR) Foundation from India conducted a multinational online survey amongst nephrologists from the Asia-Pacific to determine the practice of IN in the planning, creation, and management of dialysis access. The treatment modalities, manpower and equipment availability, monthly cost of treatment, specifics of dialysis access interventions, and challenges in the training and practice of IN by nephrologists were included in the survey. RESULTS: Twenty-one countries from the APR participated in the survey. Nephrologists from 18 (85.7%) countries reported performing at least one of the basic dialysis access-related IN procedures, primarily the placement of non-tunnelled central catheters (n-TCC; 71.5%). Only 10 countries (47.6%) reported having an average of <4% of nephrologists performing any of the advanced IN access procedures, the most common being the placement of a peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter (20%). Lack of formal training (57.14%), time (42.8%), incentive (38%), institutional support (38%), medico-legal protection (28.6%), and prohibitive cost (23.8%) were the main challenges to practice IN. The primary obstacles to implementing the IN training were a lack of funding and skilled personnel. CONCLUSION: The practice of dialysis access-related IN in APR is inadequate, mostly due to a lack of training, backup support, and economic constraints, whereas training in access-related IN is constrained by a lack of a skilled workforce and finances.
      3798
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Higher human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral load is associated with end-stage kidney disease in Indigenous Australians: Results of a case-control study in central Australia.
    (2019-10)
    Talukder MRR
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    Walley R
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    Pham H
    ;
    Schinke S
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    Woodman R
    ;
    Wilson K
    ;
    ;
    Einsiedel LJ
    Case series suggest that human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with kidney disease; however, little is known about the impact of proviral load (PVL). The present study was commenced to determine whether higher HTLV-1 PVL is associated with end stage kidney disease (ESKD) in Indigenous Australians. A case-control study was conducted in Alice Springs Hospital (ASH), 1 July 2007 to 30 November 2015. Cases included all 80 Indigenous adults (>17 years) with HTLV-1c and ESKD, matched 1:1 by sex to controls with HTLV-1 who had no renal disease or other recognised disease associations of HTLV-1, and were recruited during the same period. The association between PVL and ESKD was assessed using logistic regression. Median (IQR) HTLV-1c PVL for subjects with ESKD (6.86, IQR (3.35, 8.23) log copies per 105 peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) (ie, 0.95; IQR, 0.03; 3.70% PBL) was significantly higher than that of the asymptomatic group (3.47; IQR (-0.04, 6.61) log copies per 10 5 PBL (ie, 0.01; IQR, 0.00; 0.52% PBL) (asymptomatic vs ESKD, P (ranksum) < .001). Major factors associated with ESKD were diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 21.80; 95% CI, 4.84, 98.22; P < .001), hypertension (aOR, 4.16; 1.11, 15.64; P = .03), remote residence (aOR, 5.34; 95% CI, 1.17, 27.29; P = .03) and HTLV-1c PVL greater than or equal to 100 copies per 10 5 PBL (aOR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.36, 9.92; P = .01). Higher HTLV-1c PVL are strongly associated with inflammatory diseases. The high HTLV-1c PVL reported here may have clinical implications for people with HTLV-1 who require haemodialysis. Longitudinal studies are required to determine whether this association is causal.
      3661
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Effectiveness of Wellbeing Intervention for Chronic Kidney Disease (WICKD): results of a randomised controlled trial.
    (2021-04-19)
    Dingwall KM
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    Sweet M
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    Cass A
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    ;
    Kavanagh D
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    Howard K
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    Barzi F
    ;
    Brown S
    ;
    ; ;
    Nagel T
    BACKGROUND: End stage kidney disease (ESKD) is associated with many losses, subsequently impacting mental wellbeing. Few studies have investigated the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for people with ESKD and none exist for Indigenous people, a population in which the ESKD burden is especially high. METHODS: This three-arm, waitlist, single-blind randomised controlled trial examined efficacy of the Stay Strong App in improving psychological distress (Kessler distress scale; K10), depressive symptoms (adapted Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ-9), quality of life (EuroQoL; EQ. 5D) and dialysis adherence among Indigenous Australians undergoing haemodialysis in central and northern Australia (Alice Springs and Darwin), with follow up over two 3-month periods. Effects of immediate AIMhi Stay Strong App treatment were compared with those from a contact control app (The Hep B Story) and treatment as usual (TAU). Control conditions received the Stay Strong intervention after 3 months. RESULTS: Primary analyses of the full sample (N = 156) showed statistically significant decreases in K10 and PHQ-9 scores at 3 months for the Hep B Story but not for the Stay Strong app or TAU. Restricting the sample to those with moderate to severe symptoms of distress or depression (K10 > =25 or PHQ-9 > =10) showed significant decreases in K10 and PHQ-9 scores for both Stay Strong and Hep B Story. No significant differences were observed for the EQ-5D or dialysis attendance. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that talking to people about their wellbeing and providing information relevant to kidney health using culturally adapted, locally relevant apps improve the wellbeing of people on dialysis. Further research is required to replicate these findings and identify active intervention components. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12617000249358 ; 17/02/2017.
      1893
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Isolated Neurogenic Bladder Associated With Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection in a Renal Transplant Patient From Central Australia: A Case Report.
    (2018-12)
    Nayar S
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    Pawar B
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    Einsiedel LJ
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    Fernandes DK
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    George P
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    ;
    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic amongst the Aborigines of the Northern Territory of Australia. HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) has been associated with this infection. In general population, isolated neurogenic bladder dysfunction in HTLV-1-infected individuals without HAM/TSP has been reported, and the HTLV-1 proviral load has been found to be higher in such patients compared with asymptomatic carriers. In solid organ transplantation, few cases of HAM/TSP have been reported worldwide, but not an isolated neurogenic bladder. A 50-year-old indigenous women from Alice Springs with end stage renal disease secondary to diabetic nephropathy with no prior history of bladder dysfunction received a cadaveric renal allograft following which she developed recurrent urinary tract infections. The recipient was seropositive for HTLV-1 infection. HTLV-1 status of donor was not checked. Urodynamic studies revealed stress incontinence and detrusor overactivity without urethral intrinsic sphincter deficiency. She had no features of myelopathy. There was elevation of the serum and cerebrospinal fluid HTLV-1 proviral load. The magnetic resonance imaging myelogram was normal. Pyelonephritis was diagnosed based on clinical features, positive cultures, and renal allograft biopsy. Continuous suprapubic catheter drainage helped preventing further episodes of allograft pyelonephritis in spite of chronic colonization of the urinary tract. Isolated bladder dysfunction is a rare manifestation of HTLV-1 infection and is probably associated with high proviral loads. This may adversely affect renal allograft and patient outcomes.
      993
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Wellbeing intervention for chronic kidney disease (WICKD): a randomised controlled trial study protocol.
    (2019-01-08)
    Dingwall KM
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    Nagel T
    ;
    ;
    Kavanagh DJ
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    Cass A
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    Howard K
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    Sweet M
    ;
    Brown S
    ;
    ;
    Incidence of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) for Indigenous Australians is especially high in remote and very remote areas of Australia (18 and 20 times the rate of comparable non-Indigenous people). Relocating away from family and country for treatment, adjusting to life with a chronic condition and time lost to dialysis cause grief and sadness which have immense impact on quality of life and challenges treatment adherence. We describe the first randomised controlled trial to address both chronic disease and mental health in Indigenous people with ESKD, which is the first to test the effectiveness of a culturally adapted e-mental health intervention in this population. It builds on an existing program of mental health research with demonstrated efficacy - the Aboriginal and Islander Mental Health Initiative (AIMhi) - to test the newly developed electronic motivational care planning (MCP) therapy - the AIMhi Stay Strong App. This is a 3-arm, waitlist, single-blind randomised controlled trial testing the efficacy of the Stay Strong App in improving psychological distress, depressive symptoms, quality of life and treatment adherence among Indigenous clients undergoing haemodialysis for ESKD in Alice Springs and Darwin with follow up over two periods of 3 months (total of 6 months observation). The study compares the efficacy of MCP using the AIMhi Stay Strong App with two control groups (control app intervention and treatment as usual) on participant-reported psychological distress (the primary outcome) using the Kessler Distress Scale (K10); depressive symptoms using the adapted Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9); quality of life using the EuroQoL instrument (EQ5D) and adherence to dialysis treatment planning through file audit. Participants are randomised to receive MCP either at baseline (early treatment) or after 3 months (delayed treatment). The study also examines the cost effectiveness of this therapy in this setting through examination of health care service utilisation across groups during the first 3 months. This project will contribute much needed evidence on the efficacy of an electronic wellbeing intervention for Indigenous people with ESKD - a group in which distress is likely to be unacceptably high, yet relatively untreated. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry; ACTRN12617000249358 ; Date registered: 17/02/2017.
      1320
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Cultural considerations when providing care to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (ATSI) opting for conservative care.
    (2013-04-16)
    Highest rates of chronic and end stage kidney diseases occur within remote, regional and indigenous communities in Australia. Advance care planning is not common practice for most ATSI people. There are many barriers to providing effective supportive care to ATSI people. Choice of place of death: being able to "finish up" in the place of their choice is very important to many indigenous Australians. Family meetings, preferably in the presence of a cultural broker to explain treatment pathways and care issues will lead to informed choices being made in an environment where all stakeholders are able to participate freely. Each indigenous person is different and should not be stereotyped.
      1054
  • Publication
    Comparative Study
    Comparison of creatinine and cystatin C based eGFR in the estimation of glomerular filtration rate in Indigenous Australians: The eGFR Study.
    (2017-04)
    Barr ELM
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    Barzi F
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    Jerums G
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    Ekinci EI
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    Ellis AG
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    Jones GRD
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    Lawton PD
    ;
    ; ;
    Brown ADH
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    Hoy WE
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    O'Dea K
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    Cass A
    ;
    MacIsaac RJ
    The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation that combines creatinine and cystatin C is superior to equations that include either measure alone in estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, whether cystatin C can provide any additional benefits in estimating GFR for Indigenous Australians, a population at high risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is unknown. Using a cross-sectional analysis from the eGFR Study of 654 Indigenous Australians at high risk of ESKD, eGFR was calculated using the CKD-EPI equations for serum creatinine (eGFRcr), cystatin C (eGFRcysC) and combined creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcysC+cr). Reference GFR (mGFR) was determined using a non-isotopic iohexol plasma disappearance technique over 4h. Performance of each equation to mGFR was assessed by calculating bias, % bias, precision and accuracy for the total population, and according to age, sex, kidney disease, diabetes, obesity and c-reactive protein. Data were available for 542 participants (38% men, mean [sd] age 45 [14] years). Bias was significantly greater for eGFRcysC (15.0mL/min/1.73m2; 95% CI 13.3-16.4, p<0.001) and eGFRcysC+cr (10.3; 8.8-11.5, p<0.001) compared to eGFRcr (5.4; 3.0-7.2). Accuracy was lower for eGFRcysC (80.3%; 76.7-83.5, p<0.001) but not for eGFRcysC+cr (91.9; 89.3-94.0, p=0.29) compared to eGFRcr (90.0; 87.2-92.4). Precision was comparable for all equations. The performance of eGFRcysC deteriorated across increasing levels of c-reactive protein. Cystatin C based eGFR equations may not perform well in populations with high levels of chronic inflammation. CKD-EPI eGFR based on serum creatinine remains the preferred equation in Indigenous Australians.
      1805
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Validating a novel three-times-weekly post-hemodialysis ceftriaxone regimen in infected Indigenous Australian patients-a population pharmacokinetic study.
    (2023-08-02) ;
    Zam B B
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    Tongs C
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    Chiong F
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    ;
    Pawar B
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    Ashok A
    ;
    Cooper B P
    ;
    Tong S Y C
    ;
    Janson S
    ;
    Wallis S C
    ;
    Roberts J A
    ;
    Parker S L
    OBJECTIVES: To describe the total and unbound population pharmacokinetics of a 2 g three-times-weekly post-dialysis ceftriaxone regimen in Indigenous Australian patients requiring hemodialysis. METHODS: A pharmacokinetic study was carried out in the dialysis unit of a remote Australian hospital. Adult Indigenous patients on intermittent hemodialysis (using a high-flux dialyzer) and treated with a 2 g three-times-weekly ceftriaxone regimen were recruited. Plasma samples were serially collected over two dosing intervals and assayed using validated methodology. Population pharmacokinetic analysis and Monte Carlo simulations were performed using Pmetrics in R. The probability of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target attainment (unbound trough concentrations ≥1 mg/L) and toxicity [trough concentrations (total)  ≥100 mg/L] were simulated for various dosing strategies. RESULTS: Total and unbound concentrations were measured in 122 plasma samples collected from 16 patients (13 female) with median age 57 years. A two-compartment model including protein-binding adequately described the data, with serum bilirubin concentrations associated (inversely) with ceftriaxone clearance. The 2 g three-times-weekly regimen achieved 98% probability to maintain unbound ceftriaxone concentrations ≥1 mg/L for a serum bilirubin of 5 µmol/L. Incremental accumulation of ceftriaxone was observed in those with bilirubin concentrations >5 µmol/L. Three-times-weekly regimens were less probable to achieve toxic exposures compared with once-daily regimens. Ceftriaxone clearance was increased by >10-fold during dialysis. CONCLUSIONS: A novel 2 g three-times-weekly post-dialysis ceftriaxone regimen can be recommended for a bacterial infection with an MIC ≤1 mg/L. A 1 g three-times-weekly post-dialysis regimen is recommended for those with serum bilirubin ≥10 µmol/L. Administration of ceftriaxone during dialysis is not recommended.
      3147
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Validating a novel three-times-weekly post-hemodialysis ceftriaxone regimen in infected Indigenous Australian patients-a population pharmacokinetic study.
    (2023-06) ;
    Zam, B
    ;
    Tongs, C
    ;
    Chiong, F
    ;
    ;
    Pawar, B
    ;
    Ashok, A
    ;
    Cooper, B
    ;
    Tong, S
    ;
    Janson, S
    ;
    Wallis, S
    ;
    Roberts, J
    ;
    Parker, S
    OBJECTIVES: To describe the total and unbound population pharmacokinetics of a 2 g three-times-weekly post-dialysis ceftriaxone regimen in Indigenous Australian patients requiring hemodialysis. METHODS: A pharmacokinetic study was carried out in the dialysis unit of a remote Australian hospital. Adult Indigenous patients on intermittent hemodialysis (using a high-flux dialyzer) and treated with a 2 g three-times-weekly ceftriaxone regimen were recruited. Plasma samples were serially collected over two dosing intervals and assayed using validated methodology. Population pharmacokinetic analysis and Monte Carlo simulations were performed using Pmetrics in R. The probability of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target attainment (unbound trough concentrations ≥1 mg/L) and toxicity [trough concentrations (total)  ≥100 mg/L] were simulated for various dosing strategies. RESULTS: Total and unbound concentrations were measured in 122 plasma samples collected from 16 patients (13 female) with median age 57 years. A two-compartment model including protein-binding adequately described the data, with serum bilirubin concentrations associated (inversely) with ceftriaxone clearance. The 2 g three-times-weekly regimen achieved 98% probability to maintain unbound ceftriaxone concentrations ≥1 mg/L for a serum bilirubin of 5 µmol/L. Incremental accumulation of ceftriaxone was observed in those with bilirubin concentrations >5 µmol/L. Three-times-weekly regimens were less probable to achieve toxic exposures compared with once-daily regimens. Ceftriaxone clearance was increased by >10-fold during dialysis. CONCLUSIONS: A novel 2 g three-times-weekly post-dialysis ceftriaxone regimen can be recommended for a bacterial infection with an MIC ≤1 mg/L. A 1 g three-times-weekly post-dialysis regimen is recommended for those with serum bilirubin ≥10 µmol/L. Administration of ceftriaxone during dialysis is not recommended.
      2457