Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    The National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Taskforce: pregnancy and perinatal guidelines.
    (2022-11-06)
    Homer CS
    ;
    Roach V
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    Cusack L
    ;
    Giles ML
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    Whitehead C
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    Burton W
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    Gleeson G
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    Gordon A
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    Hose K
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    Hunt J
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    Kitschke J
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    McDonnell N
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    Middleton P
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    Oats JJ
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    Shand AW
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    Wilton K
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    Vogel J
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    Elliott J
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    McGloughlin S
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    McDonald SJ
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    White H
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    Cheyne S
    ;
    Turner T
    INTRODUCTION: Pregnant women are at higher risk of severe illness from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) than non-pregnant women of a similar age. Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, it was clear that evidenced-based guidance was needed, and that it would need to be updated rapidly. The National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Taskforce provided a resource to guide care for people with COVID-19, including during pregnancy. Care for pregnant and breastfeeding women and their babies was included as a priority when the Taskforce was set up, with a Pregnancy and Perinatal Care Panel convened to guide clinical practice. MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS: As of May 2022, the Taskforce has made seven specific recommendations on care for pregnant women and those who have recently given birth. This includes supporting usual practices for the mode of birth, umbilical cord clamping, skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding, rooming-in, and using antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate as clinically indicated. There are 11 recommendations for COVID-19-specific treatments, including conditional recommendations for using remdesivir, tocilizumab and sotrovimab. Finally, there are recommendations not to use several disease-modifying treatments for the treatment of COVID-19, including hydroxychloroquine and ivermectin. The recommendations are continually updated to reflect new evidence, and the most up-to-date guidance is available online (https://covid19evidence.net.au). CHANGES IN MANAGEMENT RESULTING FROM THE GUIDELINES: The National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Taskforce has been a critical component of the infrastructure to support Australian maternity care providers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Taskforce has shown that a rapid living guidelines approach is feasible and acceptable.
      4613
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Corynebacterium diphtheriae-infective endocarditis in a patient with an atrial septal defect closure device.
    (2019-05-09)
    Ng, Jacinta
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    ;
    Davidson, Natalie
    ;
    Marangou, James
    An 18-year-old woman presented to our institution with fever, bilateral flank pain, headache and photophobia. She had a previous atrial septal defect (ASD) closure device inserted at the age of 9 years. Blood cultures on admission were positive for Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and transoesophageal echocardiogram (TOE) revealed an echodensity associated with the ASD closure device, most consistent with a vegetation. She was treated for infective endocarditis with 6 weeks of intravenous benzylpenicillin, and follow-up TOE showed resolution of the echodensity. To our knowledge, no cases of C. diphtheriaeendocarditis of an ASD closure device have previously been reported.
      827
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    The molecular characteristics of non-small cell lung cancer in the Northern Territory's Top End.
    (2023-06) ;
    Wing, K
    ;
    Cosentino, S
    ;
    AIM: Indigenous Australians with lung cancer have poorer survival than non-Indigenous Australians. The reasons for the disparity are not fully understood and this study hypothesized that there may be a difference in the molecular profiles of tumors. The aim of this study, therefore, was to describe and compare the characteristics of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the Northern Territory's Top End, between Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients, and describe the molecular profile of tumors in the two groups. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of all adults with a new diagnosis of NSCLC in the Top End from 2017 to 2019. Patient characteristics assessed were Indigenous status, age, sex, smoking status, disease stage, and performance status. Molecular characteristics assessed were epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF), ROS proto-oncogene 1 (ROS1), Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). Student's t-test and Fisher's Exact Test were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: There were 152 patients diagnosed with NSCLC in the Top End from 2017-2019. Thirty (19.7%) were Indigenous and 122 (80.3%) were non-Indigenous. Indigenous patients compared to non-Indigenous patients were younger at diagnosis (median age 60.7 years versus 67.1 years, p = 0.00036) but were otherwise similar in demographics. PD-L1 expression was similar between Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients (p = 0.91). The only mutations identified among stage IV non-squamous NSCLC patients were EGFR and KRAS but testing rates and overall numbers were too small to draw conclusions about differences in prevalence between Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to investigate the molecular characteristics of NSCLC in the Top End.
      3471
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Real-world experience of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with solid tumours in the Top End of the Northern Territory, Australia from 2016 to 2021: a retrospective observational cohort study.
    Use of immune checkpoint inhibitors is growing, but clinical trial data may not apply to Indigenous patients or patients living in remote areas.To provide real-world incidence of immune-related adverse events (irAE) in the Top End of the Northern Territory and compare incidence between demographic subgroups.This retrospective, observational, cohort study collected data from electronic records of patients living in the Top End with solid organ cancer treated with immunotherapy between January 2016 and December 2021. The primary outcome was cumulative incidence of any-grade and severe irAE. Secondary outcomes were overall survival, treatment duration and reason for treatment discontinuation.Two hundred and twenty-six patients received immunotherapy. Forty-eight (21%) lived in a remote or very remote area, and 36 (16%) were Indigenous. Cumulative incidence of any-grade irAE was 54% (122/226 patients); incidence of severe irAE was 26% (59/226 patients). Rates were similar between Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients of any-grade (42% vs 56%, P = 0.11) and severe (11% vs 18%, P = 0.29) irAE. However, Indigenous patients had shorter treatment duration, more frequently discontinued treatment due to patient preference and appeared to have shorter median overall survival than non-Indigenous patients (17.1 vs 30.4 months; hazard ratio (HR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.92-2.66). There was no difference in mortality between remote and urban patients (median overall survival 27.5 vs 30.2 months; HR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.7-1.7).Rates of irAE in our cohort are comparable to those in the published literature. There was no significant difference in any-grade or severe irAE incidence observed between Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients.