Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Shoulder dystocia in babies born to Aboriginal mothers with diabetes: a population-based cohort study, 1998-2015.
    (2024-05-30)
    Ahmed, Marwan Awad
    ;
    Bailey, Helen D
    ;
    Pereira, Gavin
    ;
    White, Scott W
    ;
    Wong, Kingsley
    ;
    Marriott, Rhonda
    ;
    ;
    McNamara, Bridgette J
    ;
    Shepherd, Carrington C J
    Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women with diabetes in pregnancy (DIP) are more likely to have glycaemic levels above the target range, and their babies are thus at higher risk of excessive fetal growth. Shoulder dystocia, defined by failure of spontaneous birth of fetal shoulder after birth of the head requiring obstetric maneuvers, is an obstetric emergency that is strongly associated with DIP and fetal size. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of shoulder dystocia in Aboriginal babies born to mothers with DIP.Stratifying by Aboriginal status, characteristics of births complicated by shoulder dystocia in women with and without DIP were compared and incidence and time-trends of shoulder dystocia were described. Compliance with guidelines aiming at preventing shoulder dystocia in women with DIP were compared. Post-logistic regression estimation was used to calculate the population attributable fractions (PAFs) for shoulder dystocia associated with DIP and to estimate probabilities of shoulder dystocia in babies born to mothers with DIP at birthweights > 3 kg.Rates of shoulder dystocia from vaginal births in Aboriginal babies born to mothers with DIP were double that of their non-Aboriginal counterparts (6.3% vs 3.2%, p < 0.001), with no improvement over time. Aboriginal mothers with diabetes whose pregnancies were complicated by shoulder dystocia were more likely to have a history of shoulder dystocia (13.1% vs 6.3%, p = 0.032). Rates of guideline-recommended elective caesarean section in pregnancies with diabetes and birthweight > 4.5 kg were lower in the Aboriginal women (28.6% vs 43.1%, p = 0.004). PAFs indicated that 13.4% (95% CI: 9.7%-16.9%) of shoulder dystocia cases in Aboriginal (2.7% (95% CI: 2.1%-3.4%) in non-Aboriginal) women were attributable to DIP. Probability of shoulder dystocia among babies born to Aboriginal mothers with DIP was higher at birthweights > 3 kg.Aboriginal mothers with DIP had a higher risk of shoulder dystocia and a stronger association between birthweight and shoulder dystocia. Many cases were recurrent. These factors should be considered in clinical practice and when counselling women.
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP1-RA) therapy in type 2 diabetes.
    (2022-07-01)
    Ng E
    ;
    Shaw JE
    ;
    Wood A
    ;
    ;
    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a national health priority. Its rising prevalence is accompanied by a high burden of diabetes-related complications, many of which are preventable. Numerous glucose-lowering medications have been developed in recent years with growing evidence relating to their efficacy and safety. These advances have increased the complexity of prescribing decisions in T2D. OBJECTIVE: This review provides clinicians with relevant evidence and practical advice concerning glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RAs) in T2D. DISCUSSION: The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners recommends GLP1-RAs as an option for second-line therapy in T2D. GLP1-RAs contribute to weight loss and glycated haemoglobin reduction. GLP1-RAs also reduce incidence of cardiovascular events in selected populations, and available evidence suggests renoprotective effects. Common adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms, especially in the weeks following treatment initiation. GLP1-RAs should be considered for people with T2D at high cardiovascular risk or where weight loss is a priority.
      3561
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Prevalence and incidence of diabetes among Aboriginal people in remote communities of the Northern Territory, Australia: a retrospective, longitudinal data-linkage study.
    (2022-05-15) ; ;
    Guthridge S
    ;
    ;
    Barr ELM
    ;
    Ellis E
    ;
    Butler D
    ;
    Rosser A
    ;
    Falhammar H
    ;
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and incidence of diabetes among Aboriginal peoples in remote communities of the Northern Territory (NT), Australia. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis of linked clinical and administrative data sets from 1 July 2012 to 30 June 2019. SETTING: Remote health centres using the NT Government Primary Care Information System (51 out of a total of 84 remote health centres in the NT). PARTICIPANTS: All Aboriginal clients residing in remote communities serviced by these health centres (N=21 267). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Diabetes diagnoses were established using hospital and primary care coding, biochemistry and prescription data. RESULTS: Diabetes prevalence across all ages increased from 14.4% (95% CI: 13.9% to 14.9%) to 17.0% (95% CI: 16.5% to 17.5%) over 7 years. Among adults (≥20 years), the 2018/2019 diabetes prevalence was 28.6% (95% CI: 27.8% to 29.4%), being higher in Central Australia (39.5%, 95% CI: 37.8% to 41.1%) compared with the Top End region (24.2%, 95% CI: 23.3% to 25.1%, p<0.001). Between 2016/2017 and 2018/2019, diabetes incidence across all ages was 7.9 per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 7.3 to 8.7 per 1000 person-years). The adult incidence of diabetes was 12.6 per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 11.5 to 13.8 per 1000 person-years). CONCLUSIONS: The burden of diabetes in the remote Aboriginal population of the NT is among the highest in the world. Strengthened systems of care and public health prevention strategies, developed in partnership with Aboriginal communities, are needed.
      3580
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Type 2 diabetes after a pregnancy with gestational diabetes among first nations women in Australia: The PANDORA study.
    (2021-10-13)
    Wood AJ
    ;
    Boyle JA
    ;
    Barr ELM
    ;
    Barzi F
    ;
    ; ;
    Longmore DK
    ;
    Death E
    ;
    Kelaart J
    ;
    Kirkwood M
    ;
    Graham S
    ;
    ;
    Moore E
    ;
    O'Dea K
    ;
    Oats, Jeremy J N
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    McIntyre HD
    ;
    Zimmet PZ
    ;
    Lu ZX
    ;
    Brown A
    ;
    Shaw JE
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    AIMS: To determine among First Nations and Europid pregnant women the cumulative incidence and predictors of postpartum type 2 diabetes and prediabetes and describe postpartum cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles. METHODS: PANDORA is a prospective longitudinal cohort of women recruited in pregnancy. Ethnic-specific rates of postpartum type 2 diabetes and prediabetes were reported for women with diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), gestational diabetes (GDM) or normoglycaemia in pregnancy over a short follow-up of 2.5 years (n = 325). Pregnancy characteristics and CVD risk profiles according to glycaemic status, and factors associated with postpartum diabetes/prediabetes were examined in First Nations women. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of postpartum type 2 diabetes among women with DIP or GDM were higher for First Nations women (48%, 13/27, women with DIP, 13%, 11/82, GDM), compared to Europid women (nil DIP or GDM p < 0.001). Characteristics associated with type 2 diabetes/prediabetes among First Nations women with GDM/DIP included, older age, multiparity, family history of diabetes, higher glucose values, insulin use and body mass index (BMI). CONCLUSIONS: First Nations women experience a high incidence of postpartum type 2 diabetes after GDM/DIP, highlighting the need for culturally responsive policies at an individual and systems level, to prevent diabetes and its complications.
      2283
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Current evidence and practical guidance for the use of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes.
    (2021-04-01)
    Zala A
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    ;
    Shaw JE
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    BACKGROUND: The burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its associated complications continues to grow in Australia. In recent years, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have become a key component of diabetes care with rapid uptake into routine clinical practice. There is growing evidence of their clinical efficacy, but also potential adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to review the use of SGLT2 inhibitors in T2D by exploring data surrounding clinical efficacy and safety as well as providing practical advice for prescribing clinicians. DISCUSSION: SGLT2 inhibitors have multiple metabolic benefits including reducing glycated haemoglobin, weight and blood pressure. Additionally, there are strong cardiovascular benefits and renoprotective effects in selected populations. Current evidence suggests that SGLT2 inhibitors should be considered for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and to delay progression of early chronic kidney disease in people with T2D. Clinicians should also be aware of common side effects and potential rare severe complications.
      1212
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Risk of kidney disease following a pregnancy complicated by diabetes: a longitudinal, population-based data-linkage study among Aboriginal women in the Northern Territory, Australia.
    (2023-01-18) ; ;
    Shaw JE
    ;
    Boyle JA
    ;
    Lawton PD
    ;
    Barr ELM
    ;
    Guthridge S
    ;
    Webster V
    ;
    Hampton D
    ;
    Singh G
    ;
    Dyck RF
    ;
    Barzi F
    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this work was to investigate the risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) following a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or pre-existing diabetes among Aboriginal women in the Northern Territory (NT), Australia. METHODS: We undertook a longitudinal study of linked healthcare datasets. All Aboriginal women who gave birth between 2000 and 2016 were eligible for inclusion. Diabetes status in the index pregnancy was as recorded in the NT Perinatal Data Collection. Outcomes included any stage of CKD and ESKD as defined by ICD-10 coding in the NT Hospital Inpatient Activity dataset between 2000 and 2018. Risk was compared using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Among 10,508 Aboriginal women, the mean age was 23.1 (SD 6.1) years; 731 (7.0%) had GDM and 239 (2.3%) had pre-existing diabetes in pregnancy. Median follow-up was 12.1 years. Compared with women with no diabetes during pregnancy, women with GDM had increased risk of CKD (9.2% vs 2.2%, adjusted HR 5.2 [95% CI 3.9, 7.1]) and ESKD (2.4% vs 0.4%, adjusted HR 10.8 [95% CI 5.6, 20.8]). Among women with pre-existing diabetes in pregnancy, 29.1% developed CKD (adjusted HR 10.9 [95% CI 7.7, 15.4]) and 9.9% developed ESKD (adjusted HR 28.0 [95% CI 13.4, 58.6]). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Aboriginal women in the NT with GDM or pre-existing diabetes during pregnancy are at high risk of developing CKD and ESKD. Pregnancy presents an important opportunity to identify kidney disease risk. Strategies to prevent kidney disease and address the social determinants of health are needed.
      3298
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Overweight/obesity and other predictors of gestational diabetes among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women in Western Australia.
    (2023-09-26)
    Ahmed MA
    ;
    Bailey HD
    ;
    Pereira G
    ;
    White SW
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    ;
    Wong K
    ;
    Marriott R
    ;
    Shepherd CCJ
    This population-based study investigated the association of BMI and other predictors with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mothers. We conducted a state-wide retrospective cohort study that included all singleton births in Western Australia (n = 134,552) between 2012 and 2015 using population health datasets linked by the Western Australian Data Linkage Branch. Associations between GDM and its predictors were estimated as adjusted relative risks (aRRs) from multivariable generalised linear models. Adjusted ratio of relative risks (aRRRs) compared RRs in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mothers. Adjusted population attributable fractions estimated the contribution of overweight/obesity to GDM burden, and adjusted predicted probabilities for GDM were plotted against BMI levels. The following predictors had stronger associations with GDM in Aboriginal, compared to non-Aboriginal, mothers: maternal obesity (aRR [95% CI] 3.16 [2.54-3.93]; aRRR 1.57 [1.26-1.94]), previous LGA (aRR 1.70 [1.37-2.12]; aRRR 1.41 [1.13-1.76]) and previous macrosomia (birthweight ≥ 4 kg) (aRR 1.55 [1.24-1.94]; aRRR 1.53 [1.22-1.91]). 46.1% (95% CI: 36.6-54.1) of GDM cases in Aboriginal women (23.3% in non-Aboriginal mothers, 95% CI: 21.6-25.1) were attributed to overweight/obesity. Compared to non-Aboriginal mothers, adjusted GDM probabilities were higher at all BMI levels and showed greater increase with BMI. Overweight/obesity is a key driver of GDM among Aboriginal women. Association between BMI and GDM is stronger in Aboriginal, compared to non-Aboriginal, women especially at higher BMI.
      749
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    The prevalence of diabetes distress and its association with glycaemia in young people living with insulin-requiring-diabetes in a regional centre in Australia.
    (2022-10-07)
    Stapleton C
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    Watkins E
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    ;
    Timms F
    ;
    Wood AJ
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    AIM: Emotional responses, such as feeling overwhelmed with diabetes-related treatment, burnt-out and anxiety, are known as 'diabetes distress'. This study aimed to determine diabetes distress among children, adolescents and parents/carers managing insulin-requiring diabetes in a regional Australian setting, and to assess association with glycaemia. METHODS: All children, adolescents and their parents/carers attending a regional hospital outpatient diabetes clinic between March 2018 and June 2019 were invited to complete a validated child, adolescent or parent/carer diabetes distress questionnaire. Demographics and time-matched clinical data were obtained from hospital records. A cross-sectional analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 43 young people and 30 parents/carers completed a diabetes distress questionnaire during the study period. Diabetes distress was common, with 63% of young people and 67% of parents/carers nominating at least one serious concern. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, higher glycaemia (HbA(1c) %) was associated with higher distress scores among both young people (ß 6.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.2-9.2, P < 0.001) and carers/parents (ß 5.6, 95% CI:1.5-9.8, P < 0.001). Diabetes distress did not differ by child age, duration of diagnosis or mode of insulin administration. For children, adolescents and carers, 'serious concerns' most commonly related to the impact of diabetes upon family and peer relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes distress was common and associated with sub-optimal glycaemia. Routine screening for diabetes distress should be considered in paediatric services. Development of strategies to minimise diabetes distress for youth and families is required.
      4835
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Clinical, psychological and demographic factors in a contemporary adult cohort with diabetic ketoacidosis and type 1 diabetes.
    (2020-05-02) ;
    Deitch, Jessica M
    ;
    Kang, Matthew J Y
    ;
    Bach, Leon A
    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening but often preventable acute complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Understanding clinical and psychosocial characteristics of people with DKA, particularly those with multiple presentations, may aid the development of prevention strategies. To describe clinical, psychological and demographic factors in adults with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and particularly those factors associated with recurrent admissions. A retrospective analysis was performed of all admissions with DKA in people with T1D over a 4-year period from 1st November 2013 to 31st October 2017 at a metropolitan tertiary hospital in Australia. Potential cases were identified by ICD-10 coding data. Data were then manually extracted by clinicians from the electronic medical record. There were 154 clinician-adjudicated admissions for DKA among 128 people with T1D. Of these, 16 (13%) had multiple DKA admissions. Forty-one (32%) had a history of depression. The most common factors contributing to presentation included insulin omission (54%), infection (31%), alcohol excess (26%) and new diabetes diagnosis (16%). Compared to people with single admissions, those with recurrent DKA were more likely to smoke (69% vs 27%, p = 0.003), be unemployed (31% vs 11%, p = 0.04) and use illicit substances (44% vs 17%, p = 0.02). There is a high prevalence of psychiatric illness, illicit substance use and social disadvantage among people admitted with DKA, particularly those with recurrent presentations. Insulin omission, often due to inappropriate sick day management, was the most common reason for DKA occurrence. Innovative multidisciplinary models of care are required to address these challenges. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      1233