Now showing 1 - 10 of 162
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Rheumatic heart disease in Timor-Leste school students: an echocardiography-based prevalence study.
    (2018-04-16)
    Davis K
    ;
    Remenyi B
    ;
    ;
    Dos Santos J
    ;
    Bayley N
    ;
    Paratz E
    ;
    Reeves B
    ;
    Appelbe A
    ;
    Cochrane A
    ;
    Johnson TD
    ;
    Korte LM
    ;
    Do Rosario IM
    ;
    Da Silva Almeida IT
    ;
    ;
    Carapetis JR
    ;
    To determine the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in school-aged children and young people in Timor-Leste. Prospective cross-sectional survey. Echocardiography was performed by Australian cardiologists to determine the presence of RHD. Demographic data were also collected. Patients in whom RHD was detected were entered into a register to allow monitoring of adherence to secondary prophylaxis; the first dose of benzathine penicillin G (BPG) was administered on the day of screening. Schools in urban (Dili) and rural (Ermera) Timor-Leste. School students aged 5-20 years. Definite and borderline RHD, as defined by World Heart Federation echocardiographic criteria. 1365 participants were screened; their median age was 11 years (IQR, 9-14 years), and 53% were girls. The estimated prevalence of definite RHD was 18.3 cases per 1000 population (95% CI, 12.3-27.0 per 1000), and of definite or borderline RHD 35.2 per 1000 (95% CI, 26.5-46.4 per 1000). Definite (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.5; 95% CI, 1.3-9.4) and definite or borderline RHD (aOR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-5.2) were more prevalent among girls than boys. Eleven children (0.8%) had congenital heart disease. Of the 25 children in whom definite RHD was identified, 21 (84%) received education and a first dose of BPG on the day of screening; all 25 have since received education about primary care for RHD and have commenced penicillin prophylaxis. The rates of RHD in Timor-Leste are among the highest in the world, and prevalence is higher among girls than boys. Community engagement is essential for ensuring follow-up and the effective delivery of secondary prophylaxis.
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    First case of NDM-1-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolated in Timor-Leste.
    (2022-09-26)
    Sarmento N
    ;
    Oakley T
    ;
    Belo JC
    ;
    da Conceição VL
    ;
    Maia CDC
    ;
    Santos CG
    ;
    Amaral E
    ;
    Toto L
    ;
    da Silva ES
    ;
    Marr I
    ;
    ;
      5399
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    An observational study of febrile seizures: the importance of viral infection and immunization.
    (2016) ;
    Richmond P
    ;
    Robins C
    ;
    Lindsay K
    ;
    Levy A
    ;
    Effler PV
    ;
    Borland M
    ;
    Blyth CC
    Febrile seizures are common in young children. Annual peaks in incidence mirror increased respiratory virus activity during winter. Limited virological data are available using modern diagnostic techniques for children with febrile seizures. We aimed to determine the frequency of detection of specific viral pathogens in children with febrile seizures, to describe risk factors including recent vaccination and clinical features associated with specific etiologies. An observational study was performed. Children aged 6 months to 5 years presenting to the Emergency Department of a tertiary children's hospital in Western Australia with febrile seizures were enrolled between March 2012 and October 2013. Demographic, clinical data and vaccination history were collected, and virological testing was performed on per-nasal and per-rectal samples. One hundred fifty one patients (72 female; median age 1.7y; range 6 m-4y9m) were enrolled. Virological testing was completed for 143/151 (95%). At least one virus was detected in 102/143 patients (71%). The most commonly identified were rhinoviruses (31/143, 22%), adenovirus (30/151, 21%), enteroviruses, (28/143, 20%), influenza (19/143, 13%) and HHV6 (17/143, 12%). More than one virus was found in 48/143 (34%). No significant clinical differences were observed when children with a pathogen identified were compared with those with no pathogen detected. Febrile seizures occurred within 14 days of vaccine administration in 16/151 (11%). At least one virus was detected in over two thirds of cases tested (commonly picornaviruses, adenovirus and influenza). Viral co-infections were frequently identified. Febrile seizures occurred infrequently following immunization.
      1366
  • Publication
    Case Reports
    Skin and soft tissue infection caused by Basidiobolus spp. in Australia.
    (2020-02-25) ;
    Taylor B
    ;
    Lim A
    ;
    ; ;
    Fungi from the order Entomophthorales are rare but well recognized cause of tropical fungal infection, typically causing subcutaneous truncal or limb lesions in immunocompetent hosts. They may also mimic malignancy by causing intrabdominal mass, sometimes resulting in obstructive gastrointestinal or renal presentations. A 4-year-old female presented with a progressively growing abdominal wall lesion over several months, developing into acute inflammation of the abdominal wall with systemic symptoms. She underwent surgical debridement and fungal culture of subcutaneous tissue was positive for Basidiobolus spp with characteristic histopathological findings. Treatment with voriconazole followed by itraconazole over a total duration of 6 weeks led to complete resolution. Basidiobolus spp is an unusual cause of infection with characteristic mycological and histopathological findings. Infection can present in a number of ways ranging from a slow-growing mass in the subcutaneous soft tissue to an invasive mass in the gastrointestinal tract. Identification of its unique beak-like zygospore and Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon on histopathological specimens can be pathognomonic and could provide the key to early diagnosis. Review of the literature found that timely diagnosis and commencement of antifungal therapy can be curative with or without surgical treatment. Considering the rarity of this tropical infection, this case provides the opportunity for revision of the typical presentations and diagnostic findings of Basidiobolus spp. With early recognition and suitable treatment, outcomes are generally favorable.
      616
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    The burden of invasive infections in critically ill Indigenous children in Australia.
    (2017-02-06)
    Ostrowski JA
    ;
    MacLaren G
    ;
    Alexander J
    ;
    Stewart P
    ;
    Gune Sheena
    ;
    ;
    Ganu S
    ;
    Festa M
    ;
    Erickson SJ
    ;
    Straney L
    ;
    Schlapbach LJ
    To describe the incidence and mortality of invasive infections in Indigenous children admitted to paediatric and general intensive care units (ICUs) in Australia. Retrospective multi-centre cohort study of Australian and New Zealand Paediatric Intensive Care Registry data. All children under 16 years of age admitted to an ICU in Australia, 1 January 2002 - 31 December 2013. Indigenous children were defined as those identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander in a mandatory admissions dataset. Population-based ICU mortality and admission rates. Invasive infections accounted for 23.0% of non-elective ICU admissions of Indigenous children (726 of 3150), resulting in an admission rate of 47.6 per 100 000 children per year. Staphylococcus aureus was the leading pathogen identified in children with sepsis/septic shock (incidence, 4.42 per 100 000 Indigenous children per year; 0.57 per 100 000 non-Indigenous children per year; incidence rate ratio 7.7; 95% CI, 5.8-10.1; P < 0.001). While crude and risk-adjusted ICU mortality related to invasive infections was not significantly different for Indigenous and non-Indigenous children (odds ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.53-1.07; P = 0.12), the estimated population-based age-standardised mortality rate for invasive infections was significantly higher for Indigenous children (2.67 per 100 000 per year v 1.04 per 100 000 per year; crude incidence rate ratio, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.88-3.64; P < 0.001). The ICU admission rate for severe infections was several times higher for Indigenous than for non-Indigenous children, particularly for S. aureus infections. While ICU case fatality rates were similar, the population-based mortality was more than twice as high for Indigenous children. Our study highlights an important area of inequality in health care for Indigenous children in a high income country that needs urgent attention.
      1373
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Impact of swimming on chronic suppurative otitis media in Aboriginal children: a randomised controlled trial.
    (2013-07-08)
    Stephen ATN
    ;
    Leach AJ
    ;
    To measure the impact of 4 weeks of daily swimming on rates of ear discharge among Aboriginal children with a tympanic membrane perforation (TMP) and on the microbiology of the nasopharynx and middle ear. A randomised controlled trial involving 89 Aboriginal children (aged 5-12 2013s) with a TMP, conducted in two remote Northern Territory Aboriginal communities from August to December 2009. 4 school weeks of daily swimming lessons (45 minutes) in a chlorinated pool. Proportions of children with ear discharge and respiratory and opportunistic bacteria in the nasopharynx and middle ear. Of 89 children randomly assigned to the swimming or non-swimming groups, 58 (26/41 swimmers and 32/48 non-swimmers) had ear discharge at baseline. After 4 weeks, 24 of 41 swimmers had ear discharge compared with 32 of 48 non-swimmers (risk difference, - 8% (95% CI, - 28% to 12%). There were no statistically significant changes in the microbiology of the nasopharynx or middle ear in swimmers or non-swimmers. Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae were the dominant organisms cultured from the nasopharynx, and H. influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the dominant organisms in the middle ear. Swimming lessons for Aboriginal children in remote communities should be supported, but it is unlikely that they will substantially reduce rates of chronic suppurative otitis media and associated bacteria in the nasopharynx and middle ear. However, swimming was not associated with increased risk of ear discharge and we found no reason to discourage it. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000634774.
      1385
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    The ASQ-TRAK: Validating a culturally adapted developmental screening tool for Australian Aboriginal children.
    (2021-12-01)
    Simpson S
    ;
    Eadie T
    ;
    Khoo ST
    ;
    ; ;
    Thompson R
    ;
    Wunungmurra A
    ;
    Jeyaseelan D
    ;
    Dunham M
    ;
    D'Aprano A
    BACKGROUND: Developmental monitoring, performed using culturally relevant tools, is of critical importance for all young children. The ASQ-TRAK is the culturally and linguistically adapted Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3), a developmental screening tool, for Australian Aboriginal children. While the ASQ-TRAK has been well received in practice, investigating its psychometric properties will enable professionals to make informed decisions about its use. AIMS: To conduct a rigorous validation study of the ASQ-TRAK by applying Kane's argument-based approach. SUBJECTS: The ASQ-TRAK, Bayley-III and/or BDI-2 were administered cross-sectionally to 336 Australian Aboriginal children aged 2-48 months across ten participating sites in the Northern Territory and South Australia. A sample of staff and caregivers completed feedback surveys about the ASQ-TRAK. RESULTS: ASQ-TRAK domain scores were moderately positively correlated with corresponding domain scores on the Bayley-III or BDI-2. Inter-rater and inter-instrument reliability were high. Sensitivity (83%), specificity (83%) and negative predictive value (99%) were acceptable. Staff and caregivers expressed high levels of satisfaction with the ASQ-TRAK. CONCLUSIONS: Regular developmental screening can provide important information about developmental vulnerability and the need for services. The ASQ-TRAK should be administered by trained Aboriginal community-based workers and the implementation approach carefully planned. Areas for future research include longitudinal follow-up of children, investigating existing norms and cut-off scores, and considering the appropriateness of the ASQ-TRAK with Aboriginal people from different locations. The ASQ-TRAK has the potential to fill an important gap by enabling better access to high-quality developmental monitoring and targeted early intervention.
      2649
  • Publication
    Case Reports
    Complicated Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in a child in the Northern Territory.
    (2023-02-01)
    Mahony M
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    ;
    Cox V
    ;
    Sufyan W
    ;
    Wallis P
    ;
    Nizzero D
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    ;
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Searching for a technology-driven acute rheumatic fever test: the START study protocol.
    (2021-09-15) ;
    Webb, Rachel
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    Moreland, Nicole J
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    McGregor, Reuben
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    Bosco, Anthony
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    Broadhurst, David
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    Lassmann, Timo
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    Barnett, Timothy C
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    Benothman, Rym
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    Remenyi, Bo
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    Bennett, Julie
    ;
    Wilson, Nigel
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    Mayo, Mark
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    Pearson, Glenn
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    Kollmann, Tobias
    ;
    Carapetis, Jonathan R
    INTRODUCTION: The absence of a diagnostic test for acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a major impediment in managing this serious childhood condition. ARF is an autoimmune condition triggered by infection with group A Streptococcus. It is the precursor to rheumatic heart disease (RHD), a leading cause of health inequity and premature mortality for Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand and internationally. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 'Searching for a Technology-Driven Acute Rheumatic Fever Test' (START) is a biomarker discovery study that aims to detect and test a biomarker signature that distinguishes ARF cases from non-ARF, and use systems biology and serology to better understand ARF pathogenesis. Eligible participants with ARF diagnosed by an expert clinical panel according to the 2015 Revised Jones Criteria, aged 5-30 years, will be recruited from three hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. Age, sex and ethnicity-matched individuals who are healthy or have non-ARF acute diagnoses or RHD, will be recruited as controls. In the discovery cohort, blood samples collected at baseline, and during convalescence in a subset, will be interrogated by comprehensive profiling to generate possible diagnostic biomarker signatures. A biomarker validation cohort will subsequently be used to test promising combinations of biomarkers. By defining the first biomarker signatures able to discriminate between ARF and other clinical conditions, the START study has the potential to transform the approach to ARF diagnosis and RHD prevention. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has approval from the Northern Territory Department of Health and Menzies School of Health Research ethics committee and the New Zealand Health and Disability Ethics Committee. It will be conducted according to ethical standards for research involving Indigenous Australians and New Zealand Māori and Pacific Peoples. Indigenous investigators and governance groups will provide oversight of study processes and advise on cultural matters.
      1948