Now showing 1 - 10 of 31
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    The risk of adverse clinical outcomes following treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria with and without primaquine in Papua, Indonesia.
    (2020-11-11)
    Thriemer K
    ;
    Poespoprodjo J-R
    ;
    Kenangalem E
    ;
    Douglas NM
    ;
    Sugiarto P
    ;
    ;
    Simpson JA
    ;
    The widespread use of primaquine (PQ) radical cure for P. vivax, is constrained by concerns over its safety. We used routinely collected patient data to compare the overall morbidity and mortality in patients treated with and without PQ without prior testing of Glucose-6-Phosphate-Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Papua, Indonesia, where there is a low prevalence of G6PD deficiency. Records were collated from patients older than 1 year, with P. vivax infection, who were treated with an artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). The risks of re-presentation, hospitalization, major fall in haemoglobin and death within 30 days were quantified and compared between patients treated with and without PQ using a Cox regression model. In total 26,216 patients with P. vivax malaria presented to the hospital with malaria during the study period. Overall 27.56% (95% Confidence Interval (95%CI): 26.96-28.16) of 21,344 patients treated with PQ re-presented with any illness within 30 days and 1.69% (1.51-1.88) required admission to hospital. The corresponding risks were higher in the 4,872 patients not treated with PQ; Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) = 0.84 (0.79-0.91; p<0.001) and 0.54 (0.41-0.70; p<0.001) respectively. By day 30, 14.15% (12.45-16.05) of patients who had received PQ had a fall in haemoglobin (Hb) below 7g/dl compared to 20.43% (16.67-24.89) of patients treated without PQ; AHR = 0.66 (0.45-0.97; p = 0.033). A total of 75 (0.3%) patients died within 30 days of treatment with a mortality risk of 0.27% (0.21-0.35) in patients treated with PQ, compared to 0.38% (0.24-0.60) without PQ; AHR = 0.79 (0.43-1.45; p = 0.448). In Papua, Indonesia routine administration of PQ radical cure without prior G6PD testing, was associated with lower risk of all cause hospitalization and other serious adverse clinical outcomes. In areas where G6PD testing is not available or cannot be delivered reliably, the risks of drug induced haemolysis should be balanced against the potential benefits of reducing recurrent P. vivax malaria and its associated morbidity and mortality.
      1029
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Severe malarial thrombocytopenia: a risk factor for mortality in Papua, Indonesia.
    (2015-02-15)
    Lampah DA
    ;
    Yeo TW
    ;
    Malloy M
    ;
    Kenangalem E
    ;
    Douglas NM
    ;
    Ronaldo D
    ;
    Sugiarto P
    ;
    Simpson JA
    ;
    Poespoprodjo JR
    ;
    ;
    The significance of thrombocytopenia to the morbidity and mortality of malaria is poorly defined. We compared the platelet counts and clinical correlates of patients with and those without malaria in southern Papua, Indonesia. Data were collated on patients presenting to a referral hospital between April 2004 and December 2012. Platelet measurements were available in 215 479 patients (23.4%), 66 421 (30.8%) of whom had clinical malaria. Patients with Plasmodium falciparum monoinfection had the lowest platelet counts and greatest risk of severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count, <50,000 platelets/µL), compared with those without malaria (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 6.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.77-6.30]). The corresponding risks were 5.4 (95% CI, 5.02-5.80) for mixed infections, 3.73 (95% CI, 3.51-3.97) for Plasmodium vivax infection, and 2.16 (95% CI, 1.78-2.63) for Plasmodium malariae infection (P<.001). In total, 1.3% of patients (2701 of 215 479) died. Patients with severe malarial anemia alone (hemoglobin level, <5 g/dL) had an adjusted OR for death of 4.93 (95% CI, 3.79-6.42), those with severe malarial thrombocytopenia alone had an adjusted OR of 2.77 (95% CI, 2.20-3.48), and those with both risk factors had an adjusted OR of 13.76 (95% CI, 10.22-18.54; P<.001). Severe thrombocytopenia identifies both children and adults at increased risk of death from falciparum or vivax malaria, particularly in those with concurrent severe anemia.
      1321
  • Publication
    Comparative Study
    A study protocol for a randomised open-label clinical trial of artesunate-mefloquine versus chloroquine in patients with non-severe Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Sabah, Malaysia (ACT KNOW trial).
    (2014-08-19)
    Grigg MJ
    ;
    William T
    ;
    Dhanaraj P
    ;
    Menon J
    ;
    Barber BE
    ;
    von Seidlein L
    ;
    Rajahram G
    ;
    ; ;
    Yeo TW
    Malaria due to Plasmodium knowlesi is reported throughout South-East Asia, and is the commonest cause of it in Malaysia. P. knowlesi replicates every 24 h and can cause severe disease and death. Current 2010 WHO Malaria Treatment Guidelines have no recommendations for the optimal treatment of non-severe knowlesi malaria. Artemisinin-combination therapies (ACT) and chloroquine have each been successfully used to treat knowlesi malaria; however, the rapidity of parasite clearance has not been prospectively compared. Malaysia's national policy for malaria pre-elimination involves mandatory hospital admission for confirmed malaria cases with discharge only after two negative blood films; use of a more rapidly acting antimalarial agent would have health cost benefits. P. knowlesi is commonly microscopically misreported as P. malariae, P. falciparum or P. vivax, with a high proportion of the latter two species being chloroquine-resistant in Malaysia. A unified ACT-treatment protocol would provide effective blood stage malaria treatment for all Plasmodium species. ACT KNOW, the first randomised controlled trial ever performed in knowlesi malaria, is a two-arm open-label trial with enrolments over a 2-year period at three district sites in Sabah, powered to show a difference in proportion of patients negative for malaria by microscopy at 24 h between treatment arms (clinicaltrials.gov #NCT01708876). Enrolments started in December 2012, with completion expected by September 2014. A total sample size of 228 is required to give 90% power (α 0.05) to determine the primary end point using intention-to-treat analysis. Secondary end points include parasite clearance time, rates of recurrent infection/treatment failure to day 42, gametocyte carriage throughout follow-up and rates of anaemia at day 28, as determined by survival analysis. This study has been approved by relevant institutional ethics committees in Malaysia and Australia. Results will be disseminated to inform knowlesi malaria treatment policy in this region through peer-reviewed publications and academic presentations. NCT01708876.
      1290
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    The Darwin Prospective Melioidosis Study: a 30-year prospective, observational investigation.
    (2021-12) ;
    Mayo M
    ;
    Ward LM
    ;
    Kaestli M
    ;
    ;
    Webb JR
    ;
    Woerle C
    ;
    ; ; ; ; ; ;
    Huffam SE
    ;
    Janson S
    ;
    ; ; ;
    BACKGROUND: The global distribution of melioidosis is under considerable scrutiny, with both unmasking of endemic disease in African and Pacific nations and evidence of more recent dispersal in the Americas. Because of the high incidence of disease in tropical northern Australia, The Darwin Prospective Melioidosis Study commenced in October, 1989. We present epidemiology, clinical features, outcomes, and bacterial genomics from this 30-year study, highlighting changes in the past decade. METHODS: The present study was a prospective analysis of epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data for all culture-confirmed melioidosis cases from the tropical Northern Territory of Australia from Oct 1, 1989, until Sept 30, 2019. Cases were identified on the basis of culture-confirmed melioidosis, a laboratory-notifiable disease in the Northern Territory of Australia. Patients who were culture-positive were included in the study. Multivariable analysis determined predictors of clinical presentations and outcome. Incidence, survival, and cluster analyses were facilitated by population and rainfall data and genotyping of Burkholderia pseudomallei, including multilocus sequence typing and whole-genome sequencing. FINDINGS: There were 1148 individuals with culture-confirmed melioidosis, of whom 133 (12%) died. Median age was 50 years (IQR 38-60), 48 (4%) study participants were children younger than 15 years of age, 721 (63%) were male individuals, and 600 (52%) Indigenous Australians. All but 186 (16%) had clinical risk factors, 513 (45%) had diabetes, and 455 (40%) hazardous alcohol use. Only three (2%) of 133 fatalities had no identified risk. Pneumonia was the most common presentation occurring in 595 (52%) patients. Bacteraemia occurred in 633 (56%) of 1135 patients, septic shock in 240 (21%) patients, and 180 (16%) patients required mechanical ventilation. Cases correlated with rainfall, with 80% of infections occurring during the wet season (November to April). Median annual incidence was 20·5 cases per 100 000 people; the highest annual incidence in Indigenous Australians was 103·6 per 100 000 in 2011-12. Over the 30 years, annual incidences increased, as did the proportion of patients with diabetes, although mortality decreased to 17 (6%) of 278 patients over the past 5 years. Genotyping of B pseudomallei confirmed case clusters linked to environmental sources and defined evolving and new sequence types. INTERPRETATION: Melioidosis is an opportunistic infection with a diverse spectrum of clinical presentations and severity. With early diagnosis, specific antimicrobial therapy, and state-of-the-art intensive care, mortality can be reduced to less than 10%. However, mortality remains much higher in the many endemic regions where health resources remain scarce. Genotyping of B pseudomallei informs evolving local and global epidemiology. FUNDING: The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.
      2062
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Mortality attributable to Plasmodium vivax malaria: a clinical audit from Papua, Indonesia.
    (2014-11-18)
    Douglas NM
    ;
    Pontororing GJ
    ;
    Lampah DA
    ;
    Yeo TW
    ;
    Kenangalem E
    ;
    Poespoprodjo JR
    ;
    ;
    Bangs MJ
    ;
    Sugiarto P
    ;
    ;
    Plasmodium vivax causes almost half of all malaria cases in Asia and is recognised as a significant cause of morbidity. In recent years it has been associated with severe and fatal disease. The extent to which P. vivax contributes to death is not known. To define the epidemiology of mortality attributable to vivax malaria in southern Papua, Indonesia, a retrospective clinical records-based audit was conducted of all deaths in patients with vivax malaria at a tertiary referral hospital. Between January 2004 and September 2009, hospital surveillance identified 3,495 inpatients with P. vivax monoinfection and 65 (1.9%) patients who subsequently died. Charts for 54 of these 65 patients could be reviewed, 40 (74%) of whom had pure P. vivax infections on cross-checking. Using pre-defined conservative criteria, vivax malaria was the primary cause of death in 6 cases, a major contributor in 17 cases and a minor contributor in a further 13 cases. Extreme anaemia was the most common primary cause of death. Malnutrition, sepsis with respiratory and gastrointestinal manifestations, and chronic diseases were the commonest attributed causes of death for patients in the latter two categories. There were an estimated 293,763 cases of pure P. vivax infection in the community during the study period giving an overall minimum case fatality of 0.12 per 1,000 infections. The corresponding case fatality in hospitalised patients was 10.3 per 1,000 infections. Although uncommonly directly fatal, vivax malaria is an important indirect cause of death in southern Papua in patients with malnutrition, sepsis syndrome and chronic diseases, including HIV infection.
      1321
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Increased carboxyhemoglobin in adult falciparum malaria is associated with disease severity and mortality.
    (2013-09-01)
    Yeo TW
    ;
    Lampah DA
    ;
    Kenangalem E
    ;
    Tjitra E
    ;
    ;
    Heme oxygenase 1 expression is increased in pediatric patients with malaria. The carboxyhemoglobin level (a measure of heme oxygenase 1 activity) has not been assessed in adult patients with malaria. Results of pulse co-oximetry revealed that the mean carboxyhemoglobin level was elevated in 29 Indonesian adults with severe falciparum malaria (10%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8%-13%) and in 20 with severe sepsis (8%; 95% CI, 5%-12%), compared with the mean levels in 32 patients with moderately severe malaria (7%; 95% CI, 5%-8%) and 36 controls (3.6%; 95% CI, 3%-5%; P < .001). An increased carboxyhemoglobin level was associated with an increased odds of death among patients with severe malaria (odds ratio, 1.2 per percentage point increase; 95% CI, 1.02-1.5). While also associated with severity and fatality, methemoglobin was only modestly increased in patients with severe malaria. Increased carboxyhemoglobin levels during severe malaria and sepsis may exacerbate organ dysfunction by reducing oxygen carriage and cautions against the use of adjunctive CO therapy, which was proposed on the basis of mouse models.
      1292
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Major burden of severe anemia from non-falciparum malaria species in Southern Papua: a hospital-based surveillance study.
    (2013-12)
    Douglas NM
    ;
    Lampah DA
    ;
    Kenangalem E
    ;
    Simpson JA
    ;
    Poespoprodjo JR
    ;
    Sugiarto P
    ;
    ;
    The burden of anemia attributable to non-falciparum malarias in regions with Plasmodium co-endemicity is poorly documented. We compared the hematological profile of patients with and without malaria in southern Papua, Indonesia. Clinical and laboratory data were linked for all patients presenting to a referral hospital between April 2004 and December 2012. Data were available on patient demographics, malaria diagnosis, hemoglobin concentration, and clinical outcome, but other potential causes of anemia could not be identified reliably. Of 922,120 patient episodes (837,989 as outpatients and 84,131 as inpatients), a total of 219,845 (23.8%) were associated with a hemoglobin measurement, of whom 67,696 (30.8%) had malaria. Patients with P. malariae infection had the lowest hemoglobin concentration (n = 1,608, mean = 8.93 [95% CI 8.81-9.06]), followed by those with mixed species infections (n = 8,645, mean = 9.22 [95% CI 9.16-9.28]), P. falciparum (n = 37,554, mean = 9.47 [95% CI 9.44-9.50]), and P. vivax (n = 19,858, mean = 9.53 [95% CI 9.49-9.57]); p-value for all comparisons <0.001. Severe anemia (hemoglobin <5 g/dl) was present in 8,151 (3.7%) patients. Compared to patients without malaria, those with mixed Plasmodium infection were at greatest risk of severe anemia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.25 [95% CI 2.99-3.54]); AORs for severe anaemia associated with P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae were 2.11 (95% CI 2.00-2.23), 1.87 (95% CI 1.74-2.01), and 2.18 (95% CI 1.76-2.67), respectively, p<0.001. Overall, 12.2% (95% CI 11.2%-13.3%) of severe anemia was attributable to non-falciparum infections compared with 15.1% (95% CI 13.9%-16.3%) for P. falciparum monoinfections. Patients with severe anemia had an increased risk of death (AOR = 5.80 [95% CI 5.17-6.50]; p<0.001). Not all patients had a hemoglobin measurement, thus limitations of the study include the potential for selection bias, and possible residual confounding in multivariable analyses. In Papua P. vivax is the dominant cause of severe anemia in early infancy, mixed P. vivax/P. falciparum infections are associated with a greater hematological impairment than either species alone, and in adulthood P. malariae, although rare, is associated with the lowest hemoglobin concentration. These findings highlight the public health importance of integrated genus-wide malaria control strategies in areas of Plasmodium co-endemicity.
      1351
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Prevention of opportunistic infections in immunosuppressed patients in the tropical top end of the Northern Territory.
    (2003-12-01)
    Davis JS
    ;
    ;
    Fisher DA
    ;
    Huffam SE
    ;
    ; ; ;
    Zweck N
    ;
    Lawton PD
    ;
    Snelling PL
    ;
    Selva-Nayagam S
    The population of the Top End of the Northern Territory has a high incidence of several infections of particular significance in the immunosuppressed. The following protocol for evaluation and treatment of patients prior to immunosuppression was developed in order to reduce the incidence of serious opportunistic infections. The infections discussed are Strongyloides stercoralis, tuberculosis, scabies, chronic hepatitis B, melioidosis and other bacterial infections. We recommend that all patients planned to receive more than 0.5 mg/kg/day of prednisolone for >14 days, or any more potent immunosuppressive drug, be evaluated and treated according to this protocol. Details of the rationale, evidence base, and proposed investigations and therapy for such patients are discussed.
      1233
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Primaquine-induced Severe Hemolysis in the Absence of Concomitant Malaria: Effects on G6PD Activity and Renal Function.
    (2022-12-12)
    Douglas NM
    ;
    Piera KA
    ;
    Rumaseb A
    ;
    Ley B
    ;
    ;
    Primaquine prevents relapses of Plasmodium vivax malaria but can cause severe hemolysis in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. The clinical and laboratory features of this outcome are usually confounded by the clinical and hemolytic effects of concomitant malaria. We describe a case of severe hemolysis occurring after a total dose of 2.04 mg/kg of primaquine used for prophylaxis in a young, G6PD-deficient (Kaiping variant), Australian man without malaria. During acute hemolysis, he had markedly elevated urinary beta-2-microglobulin, suggestive of renal tubular injury (a well-recognized complication of primaquine-induced hemolysis). He also had albuminuria and significantly increased excretion of glycocalyx metabolites, suggestive of glomerular glycocalyx degradation and injury. We show that regularly dosed paracetamol given for its putative renoprotective effect is safe in the context of severe oxidative hemolysis. Acute drug-induced hemolysis transiently increases G6PD activity. Cases such as this improve our understanding of primaquine-induced hemolysis and ultimately will help facilitate widespread safe and effective use of this critically important drug.
      4920
  • Publication
    Clinical Trial
    Impaired systemic tetrahydrobiopterin bioavailability and increased dihydrobiopterin in adult falciparum malaria: association with disease severity, impaired microvascular function and increased endothelial activation.
    (2015-03)
    Yeo TW
    ;
    Lampah DA
    ;
    Kenangalem E
    ;
    Tjitra E
    ;
    ;
    Weinberg JB
    ;
    Hyland K
    ;
    Granger DL
    ;
    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH₄) is a co-factor required for catalytic activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and amino acid-monooxygenases, including phenylalanine hydroxylase. BH4 is unstable: during oxidative stress it is non-enzymatically oxidized to dihydrobiopterin (BH₂), which inhibits NOS. Depending on BH₄ availability, NOS oscillates between NO synthase and NADPH oxidase: as the BH₄/BH₂ ratio decreases, NO production falls and is replaced by superoxide. In African children and Asian adults with severe malaria, NO bioavailability decreases and plasma phenylalanine increases, together suggesting possible BH₄ deficiency. The primary three biopterin metabolites (BH₄, BH₂ and B₀ [biopterin]) and their association with disease severity have not been assessed in falciparum malaria. We measured pterin metabolites in urine of adults with severe falciparum malaria (SM; n=12), moderately-severe malaria (MSM, n=17), severe sepsis (SS; n=5) and healthy subjects (HC; n=20) as controls. In SM, urinary BH₄ was decreased (median 0.16 ¼mol/mmol creatinine) compared to MSM (median 0.27), SS (median 0.54), and HC (median 0.34)]; p<0.001. Conversely, BH₂ was increased in SM (median 0.91 ¼mol/mmol creatinine), compared to MSM (median 0.67), SS (median 0.39), and HC (median 0.52); p<0.001, suggesting increased oxidative stress and insufficient recycling of BH2 back to BH4 in severe malaria. Overall, the median BH₄/BH₂ ratio was lowest in SM [0.18 (IQR: 0.04-0.32)] compared to MSM (0.45, IQR 0.27-61), SS (1.03; IQR 0.54-2.38) and controls (0.66; IQR 0.43-1.07); p<0.001. In malaria, a lower BH₄/BH₂ ratio correlated with decreased microvascular reactivity (r=0.41; p=0.03) and increased ICAM-1 (r=-0.52; p=0.005). Decreased BH4 and increased BH₂ in severe malaria (but not in severe sepsis) uncouples NOS, leading to impaired NO bioavailability and potentially increased oxidative stress. Adjunctive therapy to regenerate BH4 may have a role in improving NO bioavailability and microvascular perfusion in severe falciparum malaria.
      1324