Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    The Darwin Prospective Melioidosis Study: a 30-year prospective, observational investigation.
    (2021-12) ;
    Mayo M
    ;
    Ward LM
    ;
    Kaestli M
    ;
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    Webb JR
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    Woerle C
    ;
    ; ; ; ; ; ;
    Huffam SE
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    Janson S
    ;
    ; ; ;
    BACKGROUND: The global distribution of melioidosis is under considerable scrutiny, with both unmasking of endemic disease in African and Pacific nations and evidence of more recent dispersal in the Americas. Because of the high incidence of disease in tropical northern Australia, The Darwin Prospective Melioidosis Study commenced in October, 1989. We present epidemiology, clinical features, outcomes, and bacterial genomics from this 30-year study, highlighting changes in the past decade. METHODS: The present study was a prospective analysis of epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data for all culture-confirmed melioidosis cases from the tropical Northern Territory of Australia from Oct 1, 1989, until Sept 30, 2019. Cases were identified on the basis of culture-confirmed melioidosis, a laboratory-notifiable disease in the Northern Territory of Australia. Patients who were culture-positive were included in the study. Multivariable analysis determined predictors of clinical presentations and outcome. Incidence, survival, and cluster analyses were facilitated by population and rainfall data and genotyping of Burkholderia pseudomallei, including multilocus sequence typing and whole-genome sequencing. FINDINGS: There were 1148 individuals with culture-confirmed melioidosis, of whom 133 (12%) died. Median age was 50 years (IQR 38-60), 48 (4%) study participants were children younger than 15 years of age, 721 (63%) were male individuals, and 600 (52%) Indigenous Australians. All but 186 (16%) had clinical risk factors, 513 (45%) had diabetes, and 455 (40%) hazardous alcohol use. Only three (2%) of 133 fatalities had no identified risk. Pneumonia was the most common presentation occurring in 595 (52%) patients. Bacteraemia occurred in 633 (56%) of 1135 patients, septic shock in 240 (21%) patients, and 180 (16%) patients required mechanical ventilation. Cases correlated with rainfall, with 80% of infections occurring during the wet season (November to April). Median annual incidence was 20·5 cases per 100 000 people; the highest annual incidence in Indigenous Australians was 103·6 per 100 000 in 2011-12. Over the 30 years, annual incidences increased, as did the proportion of patients with diabetes, although mortality decreased to 17 (6%) of 278 patients over the past 5 years. Genotyping of B pseudomallei confirmed case clusters linked to environmental sources and defined evolving and new sequence types. INTERPRETATION: Melioidosis is an opportunistic infection with a diverse spectrum of clinical presentations and severity. With early diagnosis, specific antimicrobial therapy, and state-of-the-art intensive care, mortality can be reduced to less than 10%. However, mortality remains much higher in the many endemic regions where health resources remain scarce. Genotyping of B pseudomallei informs evolving local and global epidemiology. FUNDING: The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.
      2062
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    SARS-CoV-2 infections among Australian passengers on the Diamond Princess cruise ship: A retrospective cohort study.
    (2021-09-07)
    Walker, Liz J
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    Codreanu, Tudor A
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    Armstrong, Paul K
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    Goodwin, Sam
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    Trewin, Abigail
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    ;
    Colquhoun, Samantha M
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    Stephens, Dianne M
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    ;
    Douglas, Nicholas M
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    Cribb, Danielle
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    Owen, Rhonda
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    Kelly, Paul
    ;
    Kirk, Martyn D
    BACKGROUND: Prolonged periods of confined living on a cruise ship increase the risk for respiratory disease transmission. We describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Australian passengers on the Diamond Princess cruise ship and provide recommendations to mitigate future cruise ship outbreaks. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of Australian passengers who travelled on the Diamond Princess from 20 January until 4 February 2020 and were either hospitalised, remained in Japan or repatriated. The main outcome measures included an epidemic curve, demographics, symptoms, clinical and radiological signs, risk factors and length of time to clear infection. RESULTS: Among 223 Australian passengers, 56 were confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive. Forty-nine cases had data available and of these over 70% had symptoms consistent with COVID-19. Of symptomatic cases, 17% showed signs and symptoms before the ship implemented quarantine and a further two-thirds had symptoms within one incubation period of quarantine commencing. Prior to ship-based quarantine, exposure to a close contact or cabin mate later confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive was associated with a 3.78 fold (95% CI, 2.24-6.37) higher risk of COVID-19 acquisition compared to non-exposed passengers. Exposure to a positive cabin mate during the ship's quarantine carried a relative risk of 6.18 (95% CI, 1.96-19.46) of developing COVID-19. Persistently asymptomatic cases represented 29% of total cases. The median time to the first of two consecutive negative PCR-based SARS-CoV-2 assays was 13 days for asymptomatic cases and 19 days for symptomatic cases (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Ship based quarantine was effective at reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2 amongst Australian passengers, but the risk of infection was higher if an individual shared a cabin or was a close contact of a confirmed case. Managing COVID-19 in cruise ship passengers is challenging and requires enhanced health measures and access to onshore quarantine and isolation facilities.
      1694
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    An imported case of chikungunya in the Northern Territory and a summary of the ecology of the disease
    (Medical Entomology, DHCS, 2004-09)
    Whelan PI
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    ;
    Chikungunya virus, an alpha virus, is one of the 4 species of the Semliki Forest complex, the others being Semliki Forest, Getah, and Mayaro. Chikungunya and o’nyong-nyong viruses are regarded as subtypes of the Chikungunya virus species. A 30 year old woman, 18 weeks pregnant with her 4th child presented to the Royal Darwin Hospital emergency department in January 2004 with a febrile illness. She had returned from East Timor 5 days prior where she had been working. The woman had been born in East Timor but had lived most of her life in Australia until taking up a position in Dili.
      1393  250
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Multisite Direct Determination of the Potential for Environmental Contamination of Urine Samples Used for Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Infections.
    (2014-09)
    Andersson P
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    Tong SYC
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    Lilliebridge RA
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    Brenner NC
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    Martin LM
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    Delima J
    ;
    Singh G
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    McCann F
    ;
    Hudson C
    ;
    Johns T
    ;
    Giffard PM
    The detection of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) agent in a urine specimen from a young child is regarded as an indicator of sexual contact. False positives may conceivably arise from the transfer of environmental contaminants in clinic toilet or bathroom facilities into urine specimens. The potential for contamination of urine specimens with environmental STI nucleic acid was tested empirically in the male and female toilets or bathrooms at 10 Northern Territory (Australia) clinics, on 7 separate occasions at each. At each of the 140 experiments, environmental contamination with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid contamination was determined by swabbing 10 locations, and urine collection was simulated 5 times, using a (1) synthetic urine surrogate and (2) a standardized finger contamination procedure. The most contaminated toilets and bathrooms were in remote Indigenous communities. No contamination was found in the Northern Territory Government Sexual Assault Referral Centre clinics, and intermediate levels of contamination were found in sexual health clinics and in clinics in regional urban centres. The frequency of surrogate urine sample contamination was low but non-zero. For example, 4 of 558 of the urine surrogate specimens from remote clinics were STI positive. This is by far the largest study addressing the potential environmental contamination of urine samples with STI agents. Positive STI tests arising from environmental contamination of urine specimens cannot be ruled out. The results emphasize that urine specimens from young children taken for STI testing should be obtained by trained staff in clean environments, and duplicate specimens should be obtained if possible.
      1284
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Medial medullary stroke due to neurosyphilis in a newly diagnosed HIV-positive man.
    (2018-08)
    Katelaris, Anthea L
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    Janson, Sonja
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    Ramachandran, Prashanth
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    This case report presents the clinical record of a 37-year-old man who presented with a dense right hemiplegia, found to be caused by a left medial medullary stroke. The cause of the stroke was unclear, and bacterial endocarditis was initially suspected. However, he was ultimately found to have neurosyphilis on a background of undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus and was treated with benzylpenicillin. This case report reviews the diagnosis of neurosyphilis and highlights the importance of considering neurosyphilis as a rare but important cause of stroke, especially given the increasing prevalence of syphilis in Australia.
      1143