Now showing 1 - 10 of 16
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Optimising meropenem dosing in critically ill Australian Indigenous patients with severe sepsis.
    (2016-11) ;
    Stewart, Penelope
    ;
    Goud, Rajendra
    ;
    ;
    Hewagama, Saliya
    ;
    Krishnaswamy, Sushena
    ;
    Wallis, Steven C
    ;
    Lipman, Jeffrey
    ;
    Roberts, Jason A
    Currently there are no pharmacokinetic (PK) data to guide antibiotic dosing in critically ill Australian Indigenous patients with severe sepsis. This study aimed to determine whether the population pharmacokinetics of meropenem were different between critically ill Australian Indigenous and critically ill Caucasian patients. Serial plasma and urine samples as well as clinical and demographic data were collected over two dosing intervals from critically ill Australian Indigenous patients. Plasma meropenem concentrations were assayed by validated chromatography. Concentration-time data were analysed with data from a previous PK study in critically ill Caucasian patients using Pmetrics. The population PK model was subsequently used for Monte Carlo dosing simulations to describe optimal doses for these patients. Six Indigenous and five Caucasian subjects were included. A two-compartment model described the data adequately, with meropenem clearance and volume of distribution of the central compartment described by creatinine clearance (CLCr) and patient weight, respectively. Patient ethnicity was not supported as a covariate in the final model. Significant differences were observed for meropenem clearance between the Indigenous and Caucasian groups [median 11.0 (range 3.0-14.1) L/h vs. 17.4 (4.3-30.3) L/h, respectively; P <0.01]. Standard dosing regimens (1 g intravenous every 8 h as a 30-min infusion) consistently achieved target exposures at the minimum inhibitory concentration breakpoint in the absence of augmented renal clearance. No significant interethnic differences in meropenem pharmacokinetics between the Indigenous and Caucasian groups were detected and CLCr was found to be the strongest determinant of appropriate dosing regimens.
      1354
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Optimised dosing of vancomycin in critically ill Indigenous Australian patients with severe sepsis.
    (2018-07) ;
    Stewart, P C
    ;
    Hewagama, S
    ;
    Krishnaswamy, S
    ;
    Wallis, S C
    ;
    Lipman, J
    ;
    Roberts, J A
    Vancomycin is a commonly used antibiotic due to the high burden of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. This study aimed to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of vancomycin in Australian Indigenous patients with severe sepsis, and advise an optimal dosing strategy. A population PK study was conducted in a remote Australian intensive care unit (ICU). Serial plasma samples were collected over one to two dosing intervals and assayed by validated chromatography. Concentration-time data collected were analysed using Pmetrics® software. The final population PK model was then used for Monte Carlo dosing simulations to determine optimal loading and intermittent maintenance doses. Fifteen Indigenous subjects were included for analysis with a median (interquartile range, IQR) age, weight and creatinine clearance (CrCL) of 43 (34-46) years, 73 (66-104) kg and 99 (56-139) ml/minute respectively. A two-compartment model described the data adequately. Vancomycin clearance (CL) and volume of distribution of the central compartment (Vc) were described by CrCL and patient weight respectively. Median (IQR) CL, Vc, distribution rate constants from central to peripheral, and from peripheral to central compartments were 4.6 (3.8-5.6) litres per hour, 25.4 (16.1-31.3) litres, 0.46 (0.28-0.52)/hour and 0.25 (0.12-0.37)/hour respectively. No significant interethnic PK differences were observed in comparison to published data. Therapeutic loading doses were significantly dependent on both weight and CrCL, whereas maintenance doses were dependent on CrCL. In the absence of severe renal impairment, initiation of maintenance dose eight hours post-loading dose achieved higher probability of target attainment at 24 hours. This is the first report of vancomycin PK in this patient group.
      1360
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Total and unbound ceftriaxone pharmacokinetics in critically ill Australian Indigenous patients with severe sepsis.
    (2016-12) ;
    Stewart, Penelope
    ;
    Goud, Rajendra
    ;
    ;
    Hewagama, Saliya
    ;
    Krishnaswamy, Sushena
    ;
    Wallis, Steven C
    ;
    Lipman, Jeffrey
    ;
    Roberts, Jason A
    In the absence of specific data to guide optimal dosing, this study aimed to describe the pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in severely septic Australian Indigenous patients and to assess achievement of the pharmacodynamic target of the regimens prescribed. A pharmacokinetic study was conducted in a remote hospital intensive care unit in patients receiving ceftriaxone dosing of 1 g every 12 h (q12h). Serial blood and urine samples were collected over one dosing interval on two consecutive days. Samples were assayed using a validated chromatography method for total and unbound concentrations. Concentration-time data collected were analysed with a non-compartmental approach. A total of 100 plasma samples were collected from five subjects. Ceftriaxone clearance, volume of distribution at steady-state, elimination half-life and elimination rate constant estimates were 0.9 (0.6-1.5) L/h, 11.2 (7.6-13.4) L, 9.5 (3.2-10.2) h and 0.07 (0.07-0.21) h-1, respectively. The unbound fraction of ceftriaxone ranged between 14% and 43%, with a higher unbound fraction present at higher total concentrations. The unbound concentrations at 720 min from the initiation of infusion for the first and second dosing intervals were 7.2 (4.8-10.7) mg/L and 7.8 (4.7-12.1) mg/L respectively, which exceeds the minimum inhibitory concentration of all typical target pathogens. In conclusion, the regimen of ceftriaxone 1 g q12h is adequate for critically ill Australian Indigenous patients with severe sepsis caused by non-resistant pathogens.
      1351
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    The impact of infectious diseases consultation on the management and outcomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia in adults: a retrospective cohort study.
    (2021-07-09)
    Chiong, Fabian
    ;
    Wasef, Mohammed S
    ;
    Liew, Kwee Chin
    ;
    Cowan, Raquel
    ;
    ;
    Lee, Yin Peng
    ;
    Croft, Larry
    ;
    Harris, Owen
    ;
    Gwini, Stella May
    ;
    Athan, Eugene
    BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia (PAB) is associated with high mortality. The benefits of infectious diseases consultation (IDC) has been demonstrated in Staphylococcal aureus bacteraemia and other complex infections. Impact of IDC in PAB is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of IDC on the management and outcomes in patients with PAB. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort single-centre study from 1 November 2006 to 29 May 2019, in all adult patients admitted with first episode of PAB. Data collected included demographics, clinical management and outcomes for PAB and whether IDC occurred. In addition, 29 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) stored isolates were available for Illumina whole genome sequencing to investigate if pathogen factors contributed to the mortality. RESULTS: A total of 128 cases of PAB were identified, 71% received IDC. Patients who received IDC were less likely to receive inappropriate duration of antibiotic therapy (4.4%; vs 67.6%; p < 0.01), more likely to be de-escalated to oral antibiotic in a timely manner (87.9% vs 40.5%; p < 0.01), undergo removal of infected catheter (27.5% vs 13.5%; p = 0.049) and undergo surgical intervention (20.9% vs 5.4%, p = 0.023) for source control. The overall 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 24.2% and was significantly higher in the no IDC group in both unadjusted (56.8% vs 11.0%, odds ratio [OR] = 10.63, p < 0.001) and adjusted analysis (adjusted OR = 7.84; 95% confidence interval, 2.95-20.86). The genotypic analysis did not reveal any PA genetic features associated with increased mortality between IDC versus no IDC groups. CONCLUSION: Patients who received IDC for PAB had lower 30-day mortality, better source control and management was more compliant with guidelines. Further prospective studies are necessary to determine if these results can be validated in other settings.
      1324
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Validating a novel three-times-weekly post-hemodialysis ceftriaxone regimen in infected Indigenous Australian patients-a population pharmacokinetic study.
    (2023-08-02) ;
    Zam B B
    ;
    Tongs C
    ;
    Chiong F
    ;
    ;
    Pawar B
    ;
    Ashok A
    ;
    Cooper B P
    ;
    Tong S Y C
    ;
    Janson S
    ;
    Wallis S C
    ;
    Roberts J A
    ;
    Parker S L
    OBJECTIVES: To describe the total and unbound population pharmacokinetics of a 2 g three-times-weekly post-dialysis ceftriaxone regimen in Indigenous Australian patients requiring hemodialysis. METHODS: A pharmacokinetic study was carried out in the dialysis unit of a remote Australian hospital. Adult Indigenous patients on intermittent hemodialysis (using a high-flux dialyzer) and treated with a 2 g three-times-weekly ceftriaxone regimen were recruited. Plasma samples were serially collected over two dosing intervals and assayed using validated methodology. Population pharmacokinetic analysis and Monte Carlo simulations were performed using Pmetrics in R. The probability of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target attainment (unbound trough concentrations ≥1 mg/L) and toxicity [trough concentrations (total)  ≥100 mg/L] were simulated for various dosing strategies. RESULTS: Total and unbound concentrations were measured in 122 plasma samples collected from 16 patients (13 female) with median age 57 years. A two-compartment model including protein-binding adequately described the data, with serum bilirubin concentrations associated (inversely) with ceftriaxone clearance. The 2 g three-times-weekly regimen achieved 98% probability to maintain unbound ceftriaxone concentrations ≥1 mg/L for a serum bilirubin of 5 µmol/L. Incremental accumulation of ceftriaxone was observed in those with bilirubin concentrations >5 µmol/L. Three-times-weekly regimens were less probable to achieve toxic exposures compared with once-daily regimens. Ceftriaxone clearance was increased by >10-fold during dialysis. CONCLUSIONS: A novel 2 g three-times-weekly post-dialysis ceftriaxone regimen can be recommended for a bacterial infection with an MIC ≤1 mg/L. A 1 g three-times-weekly post-dialysis regimen is recommended for those with serum bilirubin ≥10 µmol/L. Administration of ceftriaxone during dialysis is not recommended.
      3147
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Epidemiology and Microbiology of Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Central Australia: A Retrospective Study.
    (2020-12-20) ;
    Chiong, Fabian
    ;
    ;
    Hnin, Khin Moe
    ;
    Stewart, Penny
    ;
    Goud, Rajendra
    ;
    Woodman, Richard
    ;
    Lipman, Jeffrey
    ;
    Roberts, Jason
    ;
    Hewagama, Saliya
    BACKGROUND: Severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) has high mortality and morbidity. AIMS: To describe the epidemiology and microbiology of SCAP in Central Australia. METHODS: A retrospective epidemiological study describing the characteristics, incidence rates (IR) and microbiological aetiology of SCAP in Central Australia. Adult patients admitted to Alice Springs Hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU) between 2011-2014 that fitted the IDSA/ATS definition of SCAP were included. Medical records were reviewed and compared between Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients. Primary outcomes were incidence rate and microbiological aetiology of SCAP. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality, and ICU and hospital length of stay (LoS). RESULTS: A total of 185 patents were included (156 Indigenous, 29 non-Indigenous). The overall SCAP IR per 1000 person-years was 3.24 (3.75 Indigenous and 1.87 non-Indigenous) with an IR difference of 2.71 after adjustment (p<0.001). Those aged ≥50 had an IR 74.8% higher than those younger. Male IR was 50% higher than females. There was a significant difference between Indigenous and non-Indigenous groups for age (48 vs. 64 years), but not for 30-day mortality (7.7% vs. 10.3%), ICU LoS (4.8 vs. 4.6 days) and hospital LoS (10.9 vs. 15.1 days), respectively. Likely causative pathogen(s) were identified in 117 patients; Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common pathogen (28.2%), followed by Haemophilus influenzae (19.7%), Influenza A/B (16.2%) and Staphylococcus aureus (14.5%). CONCLUSION: A high incidence of SCAP was observed in Central Australia, disproportionately affecting the Indigenous population. Prevention strategies are imperative, as well as early identification of SCAP and appropriate empiric antibiotic regimens. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      1187
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Evaluating antimicrobial prescribing practice in Australian remote primary healthcare clinics.
    (2021-03-17)
    de Jong J
    ;
    Speare T
    ;
    Chiong F
    ;
    Einsiedel LJ
    ;
    Silver B
    ;
    Gent D
    ;
    Tong S
    ;
    BACKGROUND: Inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing contributes to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Gaps exist in the understanding of antimicrobial prescribing in the remote setting. We aimed to assess adherence to guidelines and appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing in Central Australia. METHODS: A retrospective study assessing antimicrobial prescriptions in ten Aboriginal clinics (three in remote communities and seven in regional centre) using a validated evaluation tool. Antimicrobials prescribed between 1 January-31 December 2018 were randomly selected for inclusion into the study. The main outcome measures were the rates of guideline adherence and inappropriate prescribing. RESULTS: A total of 180 prescriptions were included (96.1% Aboriginal, 32.2% male). Ninety-nine (55.0%) prescriptions were written by general practitioners (GPs), 57 (31.7%) by nurses and 24 (13.3%) by others. Forty-three (25.7%) assessable prescriptions were deemed inappropriate and 75 (44.4%) did not adhere to guidelines. Prescriptions written by GPs were less likely to adhere to guidelines, particularly GPs located in remote communities. The most common reasons for inappropriate prescribing were incorrect dosage/frequency and antimicrobial not indicated. Skin and soft-tissue infection was the commonest indication, with 29 of 41 (70.7%) prescriptions deemed appropriate. Prescriptions for lower respiratory-tract infection had the lowest rate of appropriateness, with one of seven prescriptions deemed appropriate (14.3%). Antimicrobials with the lowest rate of appropriateness were ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefalexin, at 50%, 56%, and 62%, respectively. CONCLUSION: A quarter of antimicrobial prescriptions written in select remote central Australian Aboriginal primary healthcare clinics were deemed inappropriate. The implementation of a comprehensive antimicrobial stewardship program is recommended.
      804
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Validating a novel three-times-weekly post-hemodialysis ceftriaxone regimen in infected Indigenous Australian patients-a population pharmacokinetic study.
    (2023-06) ;
    Zam, B
    ;
    Tongs, C
    ;
    Chiong, F
    ;
    ;
    Pawar, B
    ;
    Ashok, A
    ;
    Cooper, B
    ;
    Tong, S
    ;
    Janson, S
    ;
    Wallis, S
    ;
    Roberts, J
    ;
    Parker, S
    OBJECTIVES: To describe the total and unbound population pharmacokinetics of a 2 g three-times-weekly post-dialysis ceftriaxone regimen in Indigenous Australian patients requiring hemodialysis. METHODS: A pharmacokinetic study was carried out in the dialysis unit of a remote Australian hospital. Adult Indigenous patients on intermittent hemodialysis (using a high-flux dialyzer) and treated with a 2 g three-times-weekly ceftriaxone regimen were recruited. Plasma samples were serially collected over two dosing intervals and assayed using validated methodology. Population pharmacokinetic analysis and Monte Carlo simulations were performed using Pmetrics in R. The probability of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target attainment (unbound trough concentrations ≥1 mg/L) and toxicity [trough concentrations (total)  ≥100 mg/L] were simulated for various dosing strategies. RESULTS: Total and unbound concentrations were measured in 122 plasma samples collected from 16 patients (13 female) with median age 57 years. A two-compartment model including protein-binding adequately described the data, with serum bilirubin concentrations associated (inversely) with ceftriaxone clearance. The 2 g three-times-weekly regimen achieved 98% probability to maintain unbound ceftriaxone concentrations ≥1 mg/L for a serum bilirubin of 5 µmol/L. Incremental accumulation of ceftriaxone was observed in those with bilirubin concentrations >5 µmol/L. Three-times-weekly regimens were less probable to achieve toxic exposures compared with once-daily regimens. Ceftriaxone clearance was increased by >10-fold during dialysis. CONCLUSIONS: A novel 2 g three-times-weekly post-dialysis ceftriaxone regimen can be recommended for a bacterial infection with an MIC ≤1 mg/L. A 1 g three-times-weekly post-dialysis regimen is recommended for those with serum bilirubin ≥10 µmol/L. Administration of ceftriaxone during dialysis is not recommended.
      2457
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Validating a novel three-times-weekly post-hemodialysis ceftriaxone regimen in infected Indigenous Australian patients-a population pharmacokinetic study.
    (2023) ;
    Zam, Betty B
    ;
    Tongs, Carleigh
    ;
    Chiong, Fabian
    ;
    ;
    Pawar, Basant
    ;
    Ashok, Aadith
    ;
    Cooper, Brynley P
    ;
    Tong, Steven Y C
    ;
    Janson, Sonja
    ;
    Wallis, Steven C
    ;
    Roberts, Jason A
    ;
    Parker, Suzanne L
    OBJECTIVES: To describe the total and unbound population pharmacokinetics of a 2 g three-times-weekly post-dialysis ceftriaxone regimen in Indigenous Australian patients requiring hemodialysis. METHODS: A pharmacokinetic study was carried out in the dialysis unit of a remote Australian hospital. Adult Indigenous patients on intermittent hemodialysis (using a high-flux dialyzer) and treated with a 2 g three-times-weekly ceftriaxone regimen were recruited. Plasma samples were serially collected over two dosing intervals and assayed using validated methodology. Population pharmacokinetic analysis and Monte Carlo simulations were performed using Pmetrics in R. The probability of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target attainment (unbound trough concentrations ≥1 mg/L) and toxicity [trough concentrations (total)  ≥100 mg/L] were simulated for various dosing strategies. RESULTS: Total and unbound concentrations were measured in 122 plasma samples collected from 16 patients (13 female) with median age 57 years. A two-compartment model including protein-binding adequately described the data, with serum bilirubin concentrations associated (inversely) with ceftriaxone clearance. The 2 g three-times-weekly regimen achieved 98% probability to maintain unbound ceftriaxone concentrations ≥1 mg/L for a serum bilirubin of 5 µmol/L. Incremental accumulation of ceftriaxone was observed in those with bilirubin concentrations >5 µmol/L. Three-times-weekly regimens were less probable to achieve toxic exposures compared with once-daily regimens. Ceftriaxone clearance was increased by >10-fold during dialysis. CONCLUSIONS: A novel 2 g three-times-weekly post-dialysis ceftriaxone regimen can be recommended for a bacterial infection with an MIC ≤1 mg/L. A 1 g three-times-weekly post-dialysis regimen is recommended for those with serum bilirubin ≥10 µmol/L. Administration of ceftriaxone during dialysis is not recommended.
      438
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Antimicrobial stewardship in rural and remote primary health care: a narrative review.
    (2021-07-13)
    Yau, Jun Wern
    ;
    Thor, Sze Mun
    ;
    ;
    Speare, Tobias
    ;
    Rissel, Chris
    BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging problem worldwide and poses a significant threat to human health. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes are being implemented in health systems globally, primarily in hospitals, to address the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance. Despite the significance of primary health care services in providing health care to communities, antimicrobial stewardship programmes are not well established in this sector, especially in rural and remote settings. This narrative review aims to identify in rural and remote primary health care settings the (1) correlation of antimicrobial resistance with antibiotic prescribing and volume of antibiotic use, (2) appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing, (3) risk factors associated with inappropriate use/prescribing of antibiotics, and (4) effective antimicrobial stewardship strategies. METHODS: The international literature was searched for English only articles between 2000 and 2020 using specified keywords. Seven electronic databases were searched: Scopus, Cochrane, Embase, CINAHL, PubMed, Ovid Medline and Ovid Emcare. Publication screening and analysis were conducted using Joanna Briggs Institute systematic review tools. RESULTS: Fifty-one eligible articles were identified. Inappropriate and excessive antimicrobial prescribing and use directly led to increases in antimicrobial resistance. Increasing rurality of practice is associated with disproportionally higher rates of inappropriate prescribing compared to those in metropolitan areas. Physician knowledge, attitude and behaviour play important roles in mediating antimicrobial prescribing, with strong intrinsic and extrinsic influences including patient factors. Antimicrobial stewardship strategies in rural and remote primary health care settings focus on health care provider and patient education, clinician support systems, utility of antimicrobial resistance surveillance, and policy changes. Results of these interventions were generally positive with decreased antimicrobial resistance rates and improved appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing. CONCLUSIONS: Inappropriate prescribing and excessive use of antimicrobials are an important contributor to the increasing resistance towards antimicrobial agents particularly in rural and remote primary health care. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes in the form of education, clinical support, surveillance, and policies have been mostly successful in reducing prescribing rates and inappropriate prescriptions. The narrative review highlighted the need for longer interventions to assess changes in antimicrobial resistance rates. The review also identified a lack of differentiation between rural and remote contexts and Indigenous health was inadequately addressed. Future research should have a greater focus on effective interventional components and patient perspectives.
      1404