Now showing 1 - 10 of 20
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Impact of policy support on uptake of evidence-based continuous quality improvement activities and the quality of care for Indigenous Australians: a comparative case study.
    (2017-10-05)
    Bailie RS
    ;
    Matthews V
    ;
    Larkins S
    ;
    Thompson S
    ;
    ;
    Weeramanthri T
    ;
    Bailie J
    ;
    Cunningham F
    ;
    Kwedza R
    ;
    Clark L
    To examine the impact of state/territory policy support on (1) uptake of evidence-based continuous quality improvement (CQI) activities and (2) quality of care for Indigenous Australians. Mixed-method comparative case study methodology, drawing on quality-of-care audit data, documentary evidence of policies and strategies and the experience and insights of stakeholders involved in relevant CQI programmes. We use multilevel linear regression to analyse jurisdictional differences in quality of care. Indigenous primary healthcare services across five states/territories of Australia. 175 Indigenous primary healthcare services. A range of national and state/territory policy and infrastructure initiatives to support CQI, including support for applied research. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: (i) Trends in the consistent uptake of evidence-based CQI tools available through a research-based CQI initiative (the Audit and Best Practice in Chronic Disease programme) and (ii) quality of care (as reflected in adherence to best practice guidelines). Progressive uptake of evidence-based CQI activities and steady improvements or maintenance of high-quality care occurred where there was long-term policy and infrastructure support for CQI. Where support was provided but not sustained there was a rapid rise and subsequent fall in relevant CQI activities. Health authorities should ensure consistent and sustained policy and infrastructure support for CQI to enable wide-scale and ongoing improvement in quality of care and, subsequently, health outcomes. It is not sufficient for improvement initiatives to rely on local service managers and clinicians, as their efforts are strongly mediated by higher system-level influences.
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Strengthening cardiovascular disease prevention in remote indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory.
    (2015-05) ;
    Sinclair G
    ;
    Ramjan M
    ;
    Coffey PJ
    ;
    ;
    Katekar LV
    In 2012 the Northern Territory Department of Health commenced the Chronic Conditions Management Model - strengthening cardiovascular disease prevention in remote Indigenous communities. Interventions included providing regular functional reporting and decision support to frontline primary health care teams. Longitudinal (three monthly) clinical audits of cardiac prevention services were undertaken between 2012 and 2014. Our primary outcome was population coverage of cardiovascular risk assessment for Indigenous clients aged 20 years and older. Secondary outcomes for those identified at high risk were (i) assessment of modifiable cardiac risk factors, (ii) prescription of risk lowering medications, and (iii) the proportion of high risk clients achieving clinical targets for risk reduction. As of August 2014, 7266 clients have had their cardiovascular risk assessed, improving population coverage from 23% in mid June 2012 to 58.5%. For 2586 high risk clients, 1728 (67%) and 1416 (55%) were prescribed blood pressure and lipid lowering therapy and for those clinically re-assessed, 1366 (57%) and 989 (40%) were achieving clinical targets for risk reduction for blood pressure and lipids respectively. Functional reporting and decision support was associated with improvement in cardiovascular risk assessment coverage and a sustained proportion of high risk clients achieving clinical targets for cardiovascular risk reduction. Further intervention-based research is required to close the gap between identification of risk and risk reduction.
      1235
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Performance of cardiovascular risk prediction equations in Indigenous Australians.
    (2020-08)
    Barr ELM
    ;
    Barzi F
    ;
    Rohit A
    ;
    Cunningham J
    ;
    Tatipata S
    ;
    McDermott R
    ;
    Hoy WE
    ;
    Wang Z
    ;
    Bradshaw PJ
    ;
    Dimer L
    ;
    Thompson PL
    ;
    Brimblecombe JK
    ;
    O'Dea K
    ;
    ; ;
    Guthridge S
    ;
    Brown A
    ;
    Cass A
    ;
    Shaw JE
    ;
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk equations in Indigenous Australians. METHODS: We conducted an individual participant meta-analysis using longitudinal data of 3618 Indigenous Australians (55% women) aged 30-74 years without CVD from population-based cohorts of the Cardiovascular Risk in IndigenouS People(CRISP) consortium. Predicted risk was calculated using: 1991 and 2008 Framingham Heart Study (FHS), the Pooled Cohorts (PC), GloboRisk and the Central Australian Rural Practitioners Association (CARPA) modification of the FHS equation. Calibration, discrimination and diagnostic accuracy were evaluated. Risks were calculated with and without the use of clinical criteria to identify high-risk individuals. RESULTS: When applied without clinical criteria, all equations, except the CARPA-adjusted FHS, underestimated CVD risk (range of percentage difference between observed and predicted CVD risks: -55% to -14%), with underestimation greater in women (-63% to -13%) than men (-47% to -18%) and in younger age groups. Discrimination ranged from 0.66 to 0.72. The CARPA-adjusted FHS equation showed good calibration but overestimated risk in younger people, those without diabetes and those not at high clinical risk. When clinical criteria were used with risk equations, the CARPA-adjusted FHS algorithm scored 64% of those who had CVD events as high risk; corresponding figures for the 1991-FHS were 58% and were 87% for the PC equation for non-Hispanic whites. However, specificity fell. CONCLUSION: The CARPA-adjusted FHS CVD risk equation and clinical criteria performed the best, achieving higher combined sensitivity and specificity than other equations. However, future research should investigate whether modifications to this algorithm combination might lead to improved risk prediction.
      988
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Prevalence and incidence of diabetes among Aboriginal people in remote communities of the Northern Territory, Australia: a retrospective, longitudinal data-linkage study.
    (2022-05-15) ; ;
    Guthridge S
    ;
    ;
    Barr ELM
    ;
    Ellis E
    ;
    Butler D
    ;
    Rosser A
    ;
    Falhammar H
    ;
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and incidence of diabetes among Aboriginal peoples in remote communities of the Northern Territory (NT), Australia. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis of linked clinical and administrative data sets from 1 July 2012 to 30 June 2019. SETTING: Remote health centres using the NT Government Primary Care Information System (51 out of a total of 84 remote health centres in the NT). PARTICIPANTS: All Aboriginal clients residing in remote communities serviced by these health centres (N=21 267). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Diabetes diagnoses were established using hospital and primary care coding, biochemistry and prescription data. RESULTS: Diabetes prevalence across all ages increased from 14.4% (95% CI: 13.9% to 14.9%) to 17.0% (95% CI: 16.5% to 17.5%) over 7 years. Among adults (≥20 years), the 2018/2019 diabetes prevalence was 28.6% (95% CI: 27.8% to 29.4%), being higher in Central Australia (39.5%, 95% CI: 37.8% to 41.1%) compared with the Top End region (24.2%, 95% CI: 23.3% to 25.1%, p<0.001). Between 2016/2017 and 2018/2019, diabetes incidence across all ages was 7.9 per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 7.3 to 8.7 per 1000 person-years). The adult incidence of diabetes was 12.6 per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 11.5 to 13.8 per 1000 person-years). CONCLUSIONS: The burden of diabetes in the remote Aboriginal population of the NT is among the highest in the world. Strengthened systems of care and public health prevention strategies, developed in partnership with Aboriginal communities, are needed.
      3580
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Alcohol-Attributable Death and Burden of Illness among Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in Remote Australia, 2014-2018.
    Harmful use of alcohol is a problem in the Northern Territory (NT), Australia. The aim of this study was to assess and compare alcohol-attributable deaths and the contribution of alcohol to the burden of disease and injury (BOD) among the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations in the NT between 2014 and 2018. The alcohol-use data for adults aged 15+ years old in the NT population was taken from the 2016 National Drug Strategy Household Survey. BOD was measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALY) as part of the NT BOD study. Population-attributable fractions were derived to analyse deaths and BOD. Between 2014 and 2018, 673 Aboriginal and 392 non-Aboriginal people died of harmful use of alcohol, accounting for 26.3% and 12.9% of the total deaths in the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal population, respectively. Alcohol caused 38,596 and 15,433 DALY (19.9% and 10.2% of the total), respectively, in the NT Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal population for the same period. The alcohol-attributable DALY rate in the Aboriginal population was 10,444.6 per 100,000 persons, six times the non-Aboriginal rate. This study highlights the urgent need to reduce harmful alcohol use in the NT, which disproportionately affects Aboriginal peoples in rural and remote areas.
      474
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Improving preventive health care in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary care settings.
    (2017-07-14)
    Bailie J
    ;
    Matthews V
    ;
    Laycock A
    ;
    Schultz R
    ;
    ;
    Peiris D
    ;
    Larkins S
    ;
    Bailie RS
    Like other colonised populations, Indigenous Australians experience poorer health outcomes than non-Indigenous Australians. Preventable chronic disease is the largest contributor to the health differential between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, but recommended best-practice preventive care is not consistently provided to Indigenous Australians. Significant improvement in health care delivery could be achieved through identifying and minimising evidence-practice gaps. Our objective was to use clinical audit data to create a framework of the priority evidence-practice gaps, strategies to address them, and drivers to support these strategies in the delivery of recommended preventive care. De-identified preventive health clinical audit data from 137 primary health care (PHC) centres in five jurisdictions were analysed (n = 17,108 audited records of well adults with no documented major chronic disease; 367 system assessments; 2005-2014), together with stakeholder survey data relating to interpretation of these data, using a mixed-methods approach (n = 152 responses collated in 2015-16). Stakeholders surveyed included clinicians, managers, policy officers, continuous quality improvement (CQI) facilitators and academics. Priority evidence-practice gaps and associated barriers, enablers and strategies to address the gaps were identified and reported back through two-stages of consultation. Further analysis and interpretation of these data were used to develop a framework of strategies and drivers for health service improvement. Stakeholder identified priorities were: following-up abnormal test results; completing cardiovascular risk assessments; timely recording of results; recording enquiries about living conditions, family relationships and substance use; providing support for clients identified with emotional wellbeing risk; enhancing systems to enable team function and continuity of care. Drivers identified for improving care in these areas included: strong Indigenous participation in the PHC service; appropriate team structure and function to support preventive care; meaningful use of data to support quality of care and CQI; and corporate support functions and structures. The framework should be useful for guiding development and implementation of barrier-driven, tailored interventions for primary health care service delivery and policy contexts, and for guiding further research. While specific strategies to improve the quality of preventive care need to be tailored to local context, these findings reinforce the requirement for multi-level action across the system. The framework and findings may be useful for similar purposes in other parts of the world, with appropriate attention to context in different locations.
      1290
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    All-cause mortality following low-dose aspirin treatment for patients with high cardiovascular risk in remote Australian Aboriginal communities: an observational study.
    (2020-01-02) ;
    Jeyaraman K
    ;
    ; ;
    Guthridge S
    ;
    ;
    Falhammar H
    To evaluate the benefit and risk of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) in patients from remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory, Australia. Retrospective cohort study using primary care and hospital data routinely used for healthcare. Aspirin users and non-users were compared before and after controlling confounders by matching. Marginal structural models (MSM) were applied to ascertain the benefit and risk. The benefit and harm of aspirin were investigated in patients aged ≥18 years from 54 remote Aboriginal communities. None had a previous cardiovascular event or major bleeds. Patients on anticoagulants or other antiplatelets were excluded. Aspirin at a dose of 75-162 mg/day. Endpoints were all-cause, cardiovascular mortality and incidences of cardiovascular events and major bleeds. 8167 predominantly Aboriginal adults were included and followed between July 2009 and June 2017 (aspirin users n=1865, non-users n=6302, mean follow-up 4 years with hospitalisations 6.4 per person). Univariate analysis found material differences in demographics, prevalence of chronic diseases and outcome measures between aspirin users and non-users before matching. After matching, aspirin was significantly associated with reduced all-cause mortality (HR=0.45: 95% CI 0.34 to 0.60; p<0.001), but not bleeding (HR=1.13: 95% CI 0.39 to 3.26; p=0.820). After using MSMs to eliminate the effects of confounders, loss of follow-up and time dependency of treatment, aspirin was associated with reduced all-cause mortality (HR=0.60: 95% CI 0.47 to 0.76; p<0.001), independent of age (HR=1.06; p<0.001), presence of diabetes (HR=1.42; p<0.001), hypertension (HR=1.61; p<0.001) and alcohol abuse (HR=1.81; p<0.001). No association between aspirin and major bleeding was found (HR=1.14: 95% CI 0.48 to 2.73; p=0.765). Sensitivity analysis suggested these findings were unlikely to have been the result of unmeasured confounding. Aspirin was associated with reduced all-cause mortality. Bleeding risk was less compared with survival benefits. Aspirin should be considered for primary prevention in Aboriginal people with high cardiovascular risk.
      1546
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Improved life expectancy for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in the Northern Territory, 1999-2018: overall and by underlying cause of death.
    (2022-05-29) ; ;
    Wilson T
    ;
    OBJECTIVES: To provide updated estimates of life expectancy at birth for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in the Northern Territory, 1999-2018; to quantify the contributions of changes in life years lost to disease-specific causes of death to overall changes in life expectancy. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of Australian Coordinating Registry data on underlying and nine multiple causes of death (ICD-10) for deaths in the NT, by age, sex, and Indigenous status, 1 January 1999 - 31 December 2018. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Life expectancy at birth by year and 5-year period, by Indigenous status and sex; change in life expectancy by year and 5-year period, by Indigenous status and sex; contributions in changes in life years lost to leading underlying causes of death, by 5-year period, Indigenous status and sex. RESULTS: Life expectancy for Indigenous men increased from 56.6 years in 1999 to 65.6 years in 2018 (change, 9.0 years; 95% CI, 7.9-10.0 years) and from 64.8 to 69.7 years for Indigenous women (4.9 years; 95% CI, 3.2-6.7 years); for non-Indigenous men, it increased from 77.4 to 81.0 years (3.6 years; 95% CI, 2.8-4.4 years), and from 84.3 to 85.1 years for non-Indigenous women (0.8 years; 95% CI, -0.4 to 1.9 years). Increased life expectancy for Indigenous men was primarily linked with fewer years of life lost to cancer (23% of overall change), unintentional injuries (18%), and cardiovascular disease (17%), and for Indigenous women with fewer life years lost to cancer (24%), intentional injuries (17%), and kidney disease (14%). During 1999-2018, the difference in life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people declined by 26% for men (from 20.8 to 15.4 years) and by 21% for women (from 19.5 to 15.4 years). CONCLUSIONS: Life expectancy improved markedly during 1999-2018 for Indigenous people in the NT, particularly with respect to fewer years of life lost to cancer, injuries, and chronic disease. The smaller gains in life expectancy for non-Indigenous people were linked with improved survival for those with cancer and neurological conditions.
      3367
  • Publication
    Report
    Morbidity burden of disease and injury in the Northern Territory 2014-2018
    This report describes the morbidity and total BOD (burden of disease) for the Northern Territory (NT) Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations between 2014 and 2018 and updates three previous NT BOD studies (1994–1998, 1999–2003 and 2004–2013).
      1916  105