Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Rheumatic heart disease in Timor-Leste school students: an echocardiography-based prevalence study.
    (2018-04-16)
    Davis K
    ;
    Remenyi B
    ;
    ;
    Dos Santos J
    ;
    Bayley N
    ;
    Paratz E
    ;
    Reeves B
    ;
    Appelbe A
    ;
    Cochrane A
    ;
    Johnson TD
    ;
    Korte LM
    ;
    Do Rosario IM
    ;
    Da Silva Almeida IT
    ;
    ;
    Carapetis JR
    ;
    To determine the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in school-aged children and young people in Timor-Leste. Prospective cross-sectional survey. Echocardiography was performed by Australian cardiologists to determine the presence of RHD. Demographic data were also collected. Patients in whom RHD was detected were entered into a register to allow monitoring of adherence to secondary prophylaxis; the first dose of benzathine penicillin G (BPG) was administered on the day of screening. Schools in urban (Dili) and rural (Ermera) Timor-Leste. School students aged 5-20 years. Definite and borderline RHD, as defined by World Heart Federation echocardiographic criteria. 1365 participants were screened; their median age was 11 years (IQR, 9-14 years), and 53% were girls. The estimated prevalence of definite RHD was 18.3 cases per 1000 population (95% CI, 12.3-27.0 per 1000), and of definite or borderline RHD 35.2 per 1000 (95% CI, 26.5-46.4 per 1000). Definite (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.5; 95% CI, 1.3-9.4) and definite or borderline RHD (aOR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-5.2) were more prevalent among girls than boys. Eleven children (0.8%) had congenital heart disease. Of the 25 children in whom definite RHD was identified, 21 (84%) received education and a first dose of BPG on the day of screening; all 25 have since received education about primary care for RHD and have commenced penicillin prophylaxis. The rates of RHD in Timor-Leste are among the highest in the world, and prevalence is higher among girls than boys. Community engagement is essential for ensuring follow-up and the effective delivery of secondary prophylaxis.
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Rheumatic heart disease in Indigenous children in northern Australia: differences in prevalence and the challenges of screening.
    (2015-09-07) ;
    Maguire, Graeme P
    ;
    Brown, Alex
    ;
    Atkinson, David N
    ;
    Remenyi, Bo
    ;
    Wheaton, Gavin
    ;
    ;
    Carapetis, Jonathan
    To compare regional differences in the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) detected by echocardiographic screening in high-risk Indigenous Australian children, and to describe the logistical and other practical challenges of RHD screening. Cross-sectional screening survey performed between September 2008 and November 2010. Thirty-two remote communities in four regions of northern and central Australia. 3946 Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander children aged 5-15 years. Portable echocardiography was performed by cardiac sonographers. Echocardiograms were recorded and reported offsite by a pool of cardiologists. RHD was diagnosed according to 2012 World Heart Federation criteria. The prevalence of definite RHD differed between regions, from 4.7/1000 in Far North Queensland to 15.0/1000 in the Top End of the Northern Territory. The prevalence of definite RHD was greater in the Top End than in other regions (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.6, P = 0.01). Fifty-three per cent of detected cases of definite RHD were new cases; the prevalence of new cases of definite RHD was 4.6/1000 for the entire sample and 7.0/1000 in the Top End. Evaluation of socioeconomic data suggests that the Top End group was the most disadvantaged in our study population. The prevalence of definite RHD in remote Indigenous Australian children is significant, with a substantial level of undetected disease. Important differences were noted between regions, with the Top End having the highest prevalence of definite RHD, perhaps explained by socioeconomic factors. Regional differences must be considered when evaluating the potential benefit of widespread echocardiographic screening in Australia.
      1734
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Screening for rheumatic heart disease: current approaches and controversies.
    (2013-01) ;
    Colquhoun, Samantha
    ;
    Steer, Andrew
    ;
    Reményi, Bo
    ;
    Carapetis, Jonathan
    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a leading cause of cardiac disease among children in developing nations, and in indigenous populations of some industrialized countries. In endemic areas, RHD has long been a target of screening programmes that, historically, have relied on cardiac auscultation. The evolution of portable echocardiographic equipment has changed the face of screening for RHD over the past 5 years, with greatly improved sensitivity. However, concerns have been raised about the specificity of echocardiography, and the interpretation of minor abnormalities poses new challenges. The natural history of RHD in children with subclinical abnormalities detected by echocardiographic screening remains unknown, and long-term follow-up studies are needed to evaluate the significance of detecting these changes at an early stage. For a disease to be deemed suitable for screening from a public health perspective, it needs to fulfil a number of criteria. RHD meets some, but not all, of these criteria. If screening programmes are to identify additional cases of RHD, parallel improvements in the systems that deliver secondary prophylaxis are essential.
      1089
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Sydenham chorea in the top end of Australia's Northern Territory: A 20-year retrospective case series.
    AIM: Sydenham chorea is an immune-mediated neuropsychiatric condition, and a major criterion for diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF). Children in remote Northern Australia experience disproportionately high rates of ARF, yet studies looking at the epidemiology, clinical presentation and management of Sydenham chorea are limited in this population. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series from January 2002 to April 2022 of all paediatric patients aged ≤18 years admitted to Royal Darwin Hospital with Sydenham chorea. Cases were identified using the hospital's clinical coding system (ICD10). Medical records were reviewed and data on demographics, clinical presentation, investigation results, treatment and outcome were extracted, deidentified and analysed. RESULTS: One hundred ten presentations of Sydenham chorea occurred between 2002 and 2022, 109 (99%) of these were in First Nations children, with 85% residing in very remote locations. Most commonly, chorea presented as a generalised movement disorder affecting all four limbs (49%). Neuropsychiatric symptoms were reported in 33 (30%), and there was evidence of rheumatic heart disease on echocardiogram in 86 (78%) at presentation. All patients received benzathine penicillin, but there was significant variation in management of chorea, ranging from supportive management, to symptomatic management with anticonvulsants, to immunomodulatory medications including corticosteroids. CONCLUSION: This case series highlights the significant burden of Sydenham chorea among First Nations children living in Northern Australia and demonstrates wide variation in treatment approaches. High-quality clinical trials are required to determine the best treatment for this disabling condition.
      82
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Echocardiographic Screening for Rheumatic Heart Disease in Indigenous Australian Children: A Cost-Utility Analysis.
    (2017-03-02) ;
    Cannon, Jeffrey
    ;
    Atkinson, David
    ;
    Brown, Alex
    ;
    Maguire, Graeme
    ;
    Remenyi, Bo
    ;
    Wheaton, Gavin
    ;
    Geelhoed, Elizabeth
    ;
    Carapetis, Jonathan R
    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in children and young adults in disadvantaged populations. The emergence of echocardiographic screening provides the opportunity for early disease detection and intervention. Using our own multistate model of RHD progression derived from Australian RHD register data, we performed a cost-utility analysis of echocardiographic screening in indigenous Australian children, with the dual aims of informing policy decisions in Australia and providing a model that could be adapted in other countries. We simulated the outcomes of 2 screening strategies, assuming that RHD could be detected 1, 2, or 3 years earlier by screening. Outcomes included reductions in heart failure, surgery, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years, and corresponding costs. Only a strategy of screening all indigenous 5- to 12-year-olds in half of their communities in alternate years was found to be cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio less than AU$50 000 per disability-adjusted life-year averted), assuming that RHD can be detected at least 2 years earlier by screening; however, this result was sensitive to a number of assumptions. Additional modeling of improved adherence to secondary prophylaxis alone resulted in dramatic reductions in heart failure, surgery, and death; these outcomes improved even further when combined with screening. Echocardiographic screening for RHD is cost-effective in our context, assuming that RHD can be detected ≥2 years earlier by screening. Our model can be adapted to any other setting but will require local data or acceptable assumptions for model parameters.
      1826
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Rheumatic Heart Disease Severity, Progression and Outcomes: A Multi-State Model.
    (2017-03-02)
    Cannon, Jeffrey
    ;
    ;
    Milne, Catherine
    ;
    Carapetis, Jonathan R
    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a disease of international importance, yet little has been published about disease progression in a contemporary patient cohort. Multi-state models provide a well-established method of estimating rates of transition between disease states, and can be used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of potential interventions. We aimed to create a multi-state model for RHD progression using serial clinical data from a cohort of Australian patients. The Northern Territory RHD register was used to identify all Indigenous residents diagnosed with RHD between the ages of 5 and 24 years in the time period 1999-2012. Disease severity over time, surgeries, and deaths were evaluated for 591 patients. Of 96 (16.2%) patients with severe RHD at diagnosis, 50% had proceeded to valve surgery by 2 years, and 10% were dead within 6 years. Of those diagnosed with moderate RHD, there was a similar chance of disease regression or progression over time. Patients with mild RHD at diagnosis were the most stable, with 64% remaining mild after 10 years; however, 11.4% progressed to severe RHD and half of these required surgery. The prognosis of young Indigenous Australians diagnosed with severe RHD is bleak; interventions must focus on earlier detection and treatment if the observed natural history is to be improved. This multi-state model can be used to predict the effect of different interventions on disease progression and the associated costs.
      1199
  • Publication
    Comparative Study
    Echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease in high and low risk Australian children.
    (2014-05-13) ;
    Maguire, Graeme
    ;
    Brown, Alex
    ;
    Atkinson, David
    ;
    Reményi, Bo
    ;
    Wheaton, Gavin
    ;
    Kelly, Andrew
    ;
    Kumar, Raman K
    ;
    Su, Jiunn-Yih
    ;
    Carapetis, Jonathan R
    Echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is becoming more widespread, but screening studies to date have used different echocardiographic definitions. The World Heart Federation has recently published new criteria for the echocardiographic diagnosis of RHD. We aimed to establish the prevalence of RHD in high-risk Indigenous Australian children using these criteria and to compare the findings with a group of Australian children at low risk for RHD. Portable echocardiography was performed on high-risk Indigenous children aged 5 to 15 years living in remote communities of northern Australia. A comparison group of low-risk, non-Indigenous children living in urban centers was also screened. Echocardiograms were reported in a standardized, blinded fashion. Of 3946 high-risk children, 34 met World Heart Federation criteria for definite RHD (prevalence, 8.6 per 1000 [95% confidence interval, 6.0-12.0]) and 66 for borderline RHD (prevalence, 16.7 per 1000 [95% confidence interval, 13.0-21.2]). Of 1053 low-risk children, none met the criteria for definite RHD, and 5 met the criteria for borderline RHD. High-risk children were more likely to have definite or borderline RHD than low-risk children (adjusted odds ratio, 5.7 [95% confidence interval, 2.3-14.1]; P<0.001). The prevalence of definite RHD in high-risk Indigenous Australian children approximates what we expected in our population, and no definite RHD was identified in the low-risk group. This study suggests that definite RHD, as defined by the World Heart Federation criteria, is likely to represent true disease. Borderline RHD was identified in children at both low and high risk, highlighting the need for longitudinal studies to evaluate the clinical significance of this finding.
      1461
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Sydenham chorea in the top end of Australia's Northern Territory: A 20-year retrospective case series.
    (2023-08-17)
    Soller T
    ;
    ; ;
    AIM: Sydenham chorea is an immune-mediated neuropsychiatric condition, and a major criterion for diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF). Children in remote Northern Australia experience disproportionately high rates of ARF, yet studies looking at the epidemiology, clinical presentation and management of Sydenham chorea are limited in this population. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series from January 2002 to April 2022 of all paediatric patients aged ≤18 years admitted to Royal Darwin Hospital with Sydenham chorea. Cases were identified using the hospital's clinical coding system (ICD10). Medical records were reviewed and data on demographics, clinical presentation, investigation results, treatment and outcome were extracted, deidentified and analysed. RESULTS: One hundred ten presentations of Sydenham chorea occurred between 2002 and 2022, 109 (99%) of these were in First Nations children, with 85% residing in very remote locations. Most commonly, chorea presented as a generalised movement disorder affecting all four limbs (49%). Neuropsychiatric symptoms were reported in 33 (30%), and there was evidence of rheumatic heart disease on echocardiogram in 86 (78%) at presentation. All patients received benzathine penicillin, but there was significant variation in management of chorea, ranging from supportive management, to symptomatic management with anticonvulsants, to immunomodulatory medications including corticosteroids. CONCLUSION: This case series highlights the significant burden of Sydenham chorea among First Nations children living in Northern Australia and demonstrates wide variation in treatment approaches. High-quality clinical trials are required to determine the best treatment for this disabling condition.
      3462
  • Publication
    Case Reports
    The limping child's curvy diagnosis.
    (2021-09-30)
    Wong, Nicole X
    ;
    Bartlett, Murray
    ;
      2184