NT Health Research and Publications Online

Welcome to NT Health Research and Publications Online, an open access digital repository that showcases the research projects and output of researchers working for the Northern Territory Department of Health (NT Health), while also collecting and preserving publications and multimedia produced in an official capacity, that represent the department. This service is maintained by NT Health Library Services
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4212
Projects
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People
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  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Protocol and rationale of the Australian multicentre registry for serial cardiac computed tomography angiography (ARISTOCRAT): a prospective observational study of the natural history of pericoronary adipose tissue attenuation and radiomics.
    (2024-06-30)
    Cheng, Kevin
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    Lin, Andrew
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    Psaltis, Peter J
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    Rajwani, Adil
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    Brett, Nicholas
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    Otton, James
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    Nicholls, Stephen J
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    Dey, Damini
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    Wong, Dennis T L
    Vascular inflammation plays a crucial role in the development of atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic plaque rupture resulting in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Pericoronary adipose tissue (PCAT) attenuation quantified from routine coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has emerged as a promising non-invasive imaging biomarker of coronary inflammation. However, a detailed understanding of the natural history of PCAT attenuation is required before it can be used as a surrogate endpoint in trials of novel therapies targeting coronary inflammation. This article aims to explore the natural history of PCAT attenuation and its association with changes in plaque characteristics.The Australian natuRal hISTOry of periCoronary adipose tissue attenuation, RAdiomics and plaque by computed Tomographic angiography (ARISTOCRAT) registry is a multi-centre observational registry enrolling patients undergoing clinically indicated serial CCTA in 9 centres across Australia. CCTA scan parameters will be matched across serial scans. Quantitative analysis of plaque and PCAT will be performed using semiautomated software.The primary endpoint is to explore temporal changes in patient-level and lesion-level PCAT attenuation by CCTA and their associations with changes in plaque characteristics. Secondary endpoints include evaluating: (I) impact of statin therapy on PCAT attenuation and plaque characteristics; and (II) changes in PCAT attenuation and plaque characteristics in specific subgroups according to sex and risk factors. ARISTOCRAT will further our understanding of the natural history of PCAT attenuation and its association with changes in plaque characteristics.This study has been prospectively registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12621001018808).
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Systemic lupus erythematosus in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia: addressing disparities and barriers to optimising patient care.
    (2024-07-03)
    Eades, Laura E
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    Hoi, Alberta Y
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    Sines, Jason
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    Kandane-Rathnayake, Rangi
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    Nossent, Johannes
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    Morand, Eric F
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    Liew, David F L
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    Brown, Alex
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    Vincent, Fabien B
    The first inhabitants of Australia and the traditional owners of Australian lands are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are two to four times more likely to have systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) than the general Australian population. Phenotypically, SLE appears distinctive in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and its severity is substantially increased, with mortality rates up to six times higher than in the general Australian population with SLE. In particular, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples with SLE have increased prevalence of lupus nephritis and increased rates of progression to end-stage kidney disease. The reasons for the increased prevalence and severity of SLE in this population are unclear, but socioeconomic, environmental, and biological factors are all likely to be implicated, although there are no published studies investigating these factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples with SLE specifically, indicating an important knowledge gap. In this Review, we summarise the data on the incidence, prevalence, and clinical and biological findings relating to SLE in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and explore potential factors contributing to its increased prevalence and severity in this population. Importantly, we identify health disparities and deficiencies in health-care provision that limit optimal care and outcomes for many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples with SLE and highlight potentially addressable goals to improve outcomes.
  • Person
  • Person
  • Publication
    Journal Article
    Impact on pregnancy outcomes of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in urban and peri-urban Papua New Guinea: a retrospective cohort study.
    (2024-07-05)
    Cellich, Philip
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    Rogerson, Stephen J
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    Mola, Glen D L
    Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) reduces malaria-attributable adverse pregnancy outcomes and may also prevent low birth weight (< 2,500 g) through mechanisms independent of malaria. Malaria transmission in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is highly heterogeneous. The impact of IPTp-SP on adverse birth outcomes in settings with little or no malaria transmission, such as PNG's capital city Port Moresby, is unknown.A retrospective cohort study was conducted amongst HIV-negative women with a singleton pregnancy who delivered at Port Moresby General Hospital between 18 July and 21 August 2022. The impact of IPTp-SP doses on adverse birth outcomes and anaemia was assessed using logistic and linear regression models, as appropriate.Of 1,140 eligible women amongst 1,228 consecutive births, 1,110 had a live birth with a documented birth weight. A total of 156 women (13.7%) did not receive any IPTp-SP, 347 women (30.4%) received one, 333 (29.2%) received two, and 304 (26.7%) received the recommended ≥ 3 doses of IPTp-SP. A total of 65 of 1,110 liveborn babies (5.9%) had low birth weight and there were 34 perinatal deaths (3.0%). Anaemia (haemoglobin < 100 g/L) was observed in 30.6% (243/793) of women, and 14 (1.2%) had clinical malaria in pregnancy. Compared to women receiving 0-1 dose of IPTp-SP, women receiving ≥ 2 doses had lower odds of LBW (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.26, 0.96), preterm birth (aOR 0.58; 95% CI 0.32, 1.04), perinatal death (aOR 0.49; 95% CI 0.18, 1.38), LBW/perinatal death (aOR 0.55; 95% CI 0.27, 1.12), and anaemia (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.36, 0.69). Women who received 2 doses versus 0-1 had 45% lower odds of LBW (aOR 0.55, 95% CI 0.27, 1.10), and a 16% further (total 61%) reduction with ≥ 3 doses (aOR 0.39, 95% CI 0.14, 1.05). Birth weights for women who received 2 or ≥ 3 doses versus 0-1 were 81 g (95% CI -3, 166) higher, and 151 g (58, 246) higher, respectively.Provision of IPTp-SP in a low malaria-transmission setting in PNG appears to translate into substantial health benefits, in a dose-response manner, supporting the strengthening IPTp-SP uptake across all transmission settings in PNG.
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